Beyond information seeking / Godbold(2006)

Citation - Godbold, N. (2006). Beyond information seeking: Towards a general model of information behaviour. Information Research, 11(4). available in

keyword: information behavior

  • 將以 Wilson 與 Dervin 理論為主的資訊尋求行為模式擴張到資訊行為模式
  • Argument: 某些資訊行為模式的缺點在於其序列式的程序,而「真實」的行為並非總是序列的。此外,資訊行為模式應該避免只描述資訊尋求。
    A shortcoming of some models of information behaviour is that they present a sequence of stages where it is evident that actual behaviour is not always sequential. In addition, information behaviour models tend to confine themselves to depictions of information seeking.
  • Development. 根據 Chatman, Krikelas, Savolainen 的理論發展出「多向性」資訊行為模式,涵蓋了資訊創作、資訊消除與資訊避免等行為。
    A model of 'multi-directionality' is explored, to overcome the notion of sequential stages. Inspired by authors such as Chatman, Krikelas, and Savolainen, modes of information behaviour such as creating, destroying and avoiding information are included.
  • Conclusion. 新的資訊行為模式替換了整合 Wilson與Dervin模式的「阻礙」、「鴻溝」概念。新提出的模式採用多向性的概念與識別方法。
    New models of information behaviour are presented that replace the notion of 'barriers' with the concept of 'gap', as a means of integrating the views of Wilson and Dervin. The proposed models incorporate the notion of multi-directionality and identify ways in which an individual may navigate 'gap' using modes of information behaviour beyond information seeking.

Exist IB theories and models reviewed


  • 回顧 TD Wilson 與 B Dervin 的資訊行為模型,提出兩個缺點
    • 資訊行為並不一定是單向的
      Multi-directionality in information behaviour
      上述的資訊行為模型都是一種進程順序的關係: 個人體驗到某些需求,開始尋求,找到資訊,用來解決問題。但人的資訊尋求行為,實際上並沒有一定的順序,而是多方向的、遞迴的、可能中斷或放棄的、重新來過的。
      The order of information seeking tasks may be reversed or convoluted, and includes dead-ends, changes of direction, iteration, abandonment and beginning again.
  • Gap 並不能解釋資訊尋求行為的動機。Gap 過大或過小都不會發生資訊尋求行為。
  • The definition of Information Behavior by Wilson
    • 'those activities a person may engage in when identifying his or her own needs for information, searching for such information in any way and using or transferring that information.' (Wilson 1999: 249)
    • 'the totality of human behaviour in relation to sources and channels of information, including both active and passive information seeking and information use.' (Wilson 2000: 49)
  • A wider alternative information behaviour strategies:
    • encounter information by actively gathering information towards a goal, but also by:
      • routine information gathering (Krikelas 1983; Savolainen 1995; Williamson 1998) and
      • picking up information by chance in the course of other activities. (Krikelas 1983; Savolainen 1995; Williamson 1998; Erdelez 2005
    • People respond to information by seeking more information, but also by:
      • sharing or spreading information, creating documents, telling other people. (Krikelas 1983; Wilson 1994; Haythornthwaite 1996; Williamson 1998; Pettigrew 1999; Rioux 2005)
      • taking mental note (non specific goal or goal not imagined yet) (Krikelas 1983)
      • avoiding or ignoring information (Chatman 1996, 2000; Wilson 1997; Solomon 2005)
      • disputing or disbelieving information (Chatman 1999)
      • hiding and / or destroying information (Chatman 1996, 2000)
  • Dervin's bridge the gap. Seeking strategies 'allows them to change their internal reality, until it more closely fits what we are calling 'external reality'.'
    • Dervin's theory can't interpret alternative strategies.

a new model

  • build a bridge
    • seek information
    • create information
  • make the gap smaller
    • spread or dispute information
    • destroy information
  • ignore the gap (take a different path)
    • avoid or disbelieve information
    • take mental note



討論的部份,圍繞在gap上。作者認為資訊行為需要focus the gap,更瞭解人如何在gap之中 navigating ,而並非只是要超越gap。另一方面,也認為有些資訊行為不需要有gap。作者視gap為資訊行為的主要動機來源。


非尋求的資訊行為:這些引用來源幾乎都出自於 Fisher, K. E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (Eds.). (2005). Theories of information behavior. Medford, N.J.: Information Today.

  • Hjørland 2005;
  • Sundin & Hedman 2005
  • Talja 2005
  • Savolainen (2005: 146) remarked that mastery of life 'describes the tendency to adopt a certain information seeking strategy'; does it also describe a general tendency toward strategies of information behaviour?
  • information intents (Todd 2005),
  • affective load (Nahl 2005),
  • motivational factors (Watters & Duffy 2005),
  • Hansen 2005;
  • Wildemuth & Hughes 2005)
  • Would the problem be investigated best by using discursive information research (Tuominen et al. 2005)
  • social positioning theory (Given 2005),



collaborative information behavior
Information behavior theories
affective_load, anomalous_state_of_knowledge, archival_intelligence, social_cognition, berrypicking, big6_skills for Information Literacy, browsing, cognitive_authority, cognitive_work_analysis, collective_action_dilemma, communicative_action, communities_of_practice, cultural_models_of_hall_and_hofstede, diffusion_theory, The domain_analytic_approach to Scholars Information Practices, ecological_model_of_human_information_behavior, elicitation_as_micro_level_information_seeking, everyday_life_information_seeking, face_threat, flow_theory, general_model_of_the_information_seeking_of_professionals, information_acquiring-and-sharing, information_activities_in_work_tasks, information_encountering, information_grounds, information_horizons, information_intents, information_interchange, information_poverty, information_seeking_behavior_model, information_seeking_model, information_search_process, information_use_environments, institutional_ethnography, integrative_framework_for_information_seeking_and_interactive_information_retrieval, interpretative_repertoires, The imposed_query, library_anxiety, life_in_the_round, monitoring and blunting, motivational_factors_for_interface_design, network_gatekeeping, nonlinear_information_seeking, optimal_foraging, organizational_sense_making_and_information_use, The pain_hypothesis, perspectives_on_the_tasks in which Information Behaviors are Embedded, phenomenography, practice_of_everyday_life, principle_of_least_effort, professions_and_occupational_identities, question-negotiation, radical_change, reader_response_theory, rounding_and_dissonant_grounds, sense-making, serious_leisure, small-world_network, social_capital, social_constructionist_viewpoint_on_information_practices, social_positioning, socio-cognitive_theory, strength_of_weak_ties, symbolic_violence, transtheoretical_model of the health behavior change, value_sensitive_design, web_information_behaviors_of_organizational_workers, willingness_to_return, women_knowing, work_task_information_seeking_and_retrieval_processes, www_information_seeking, Vygotsky's zpd

2018/12/02 17:45