Anomalous State of Knowledge(ASK) [知識異常態]

Keywords - information behavior

知識異常態(Anomalous State of Knowledge, ASK)的概念,是由 Belkin (1977) 所提出。

在資訊科學的脈絡中,傳播系統是既是接收者驅使的(recipient-instigated),也是接收者控制的(recipient-controlled)。在由許多人所產生的文字世界中,當有人(接收者)鎖定一個或一些文字,溝通才會開始,也因此才能完整一個溝通系統,而在達成目的時結束。這稱為語言層次的溝通,在此,產生者製造出使用者閱讀的文字。在認知層次,文字被理解為,受到目的、價值、與內在信念結構的修改,所呈現產生者的知識的概念狀態。

Belkin 建議,應把這種基本結構視為資訊與文字的連結。他進一步論述,認為最好由認知層次理解啟動這種溝通系統的理由,即,在某些目的的前提下,接收者認知到其知識狀態正處於非常態(anomalous)中,並且接收者希望能解決這種異常。

關於「異常」(anomaly),Balkin 是指使用者對某個主題的知識狀態,在考慮完成其工作目標時,有些不充分(inadequate)。「異常」此一概念是用來彰顯這種不充分的狀態。這種不充分的狀態並不只是由於缺乏知識所導致的,也可能包含其他的因素,例如,在許多相關概念中的不確定性。

ASK 與 Taylor(1968)的「無意識需求(unconscious need)」, Wersig (1971)的「問題狀態(problematic situation)」, Dervin (1983)的「鴻溝(gaps)」等說法,有明顯關係。Belkin 的 ASK 假說與其他說法的不同,在於:

  1. ASK 是普遍現象的明確地認知解釋。
  2. ASK 認為異常態可能有多種類型
  3. 在一實徵檢驗中,已經成功的測試過此概念操作化的結果(Belkin, 1977)
  4. 在資訊檢索系統的設計與理解上已經有具體的提議與測試

References

<table style="font-size:10pt;text-align:left;"> <tr><th>LIS</th></tr> <tr><td>information_behavior </td></tr> <tr><td>collaborative information behavior</td></tr> <tr><th> Information behavior theories </th></tr> <tr><td> affective_load, anomalous_state_of_knowledge, archival_intelligence, social_cognition, berrypicking, big6_skills for Information Literacy, browsing, cognitive_authority, cognitive_work_analysis, collective_action_dilemma, communicative_action, communities_of_practice, cultural_models_of_hall_and_hofstede, diffusion_theory, The domain_analytic_approach to Scholars Information Practices, ecological_model_of_human_information_behavior, elicitation_as_micro_level_information_seeking, everyday_life_information_seeking, face_threat, flow_theory, general_model_of_the_information_seeking_of_professionals, information_acquiring-and-sharing, information_activities_in_work_tasks, information_encountering, information_grounds, information_horizons, information_intents, information_interchange, information_poverty, information_seeking_behavior_model, information_seeking_model, information_search_process, information_use_environments, institutional_ethnography, integrative_framework_for_information_seeking_and_interactive_information_retrieval, interpretative_repertoires, The imposed_query, library_anxiety, life_in_the_round, monitoring and blunting, motivational_factors_for_interface_design, network_gatekeeping, nonlinear_information_seeking, optimal_foraging, organizational_sense_making_and_information_use, The pain_hypothesis, perspectives_on_the_tasks in which Information Behaviors are Embedded, phenomenography, practice_of_everyday_life, principle_of_least_effort, professions_and_occupational_identities, question-negotiation, radical_change, reader_response_theory, rounding_and_dissonant_grounds, sense-making, serious_leisure, small-world_network, social_capital, social_constructionist_viewpoint_on_information_practices, social_positioning, socio-cognitive_theory, strength_of_weak_ties, symbolic_violence, transtheoretical_model of the health behavior change, value_sensitive_design, web_information_behaviors_of_organizational_workers, willingness_to_return, women_knowing, work_task_information_seeking_and_retrieval_processes, www_information_seeking, Vygotsky's zpd </td></tr></table>