Information Task [資訊任務]

圖書資訊學研究中,資訊任務(Information Task)是指在某種環境或工作場域等情境下,為了完成或達到某種目標或目的,所進行的資訊行為(information behavior)。例如,學生為了完成作業或論文,而在學習活動中進行的資訊尋求行為(Kuhlthau, 1991);公務人員為了規劃與管理工作所進行的資訊行為(Bystrom, 2002),等等。

儘管,有意圖、目的導向的資訊任務較無意圖的行為更容易在研究中被分析與掌握,但由於任務本身也涵蓋了工作環境、領域知識等等情境因素,因此資訊任務亦存在高度的複雜性。資訊任務也能被細分為不同層次的主任務與子任務,作為進一步探討資訊行為中的活動單位。例如,區分在特定領域中的工作任務(Work task)脈絡,以及因此發生的資訊尋求任務(Information Seeking Task)與檢索任務(Information Retrieval Task)1)。在相關的研究已歸納出數種不同的資訊任務分析架構,定義出工作任務的本質、階段、時間範圍,以及搜尋任務的緣由、類型、彈性等不同資訊任務面向。這些架構都有助研究者進一步釐清資訊任務的複雜性2)

資訊任務是資訊尋求行為中重要的成分之一。在資訊尋求行為研究中,釐清其資訊任務概念能有助於了解使用者的行動意圖與目的,以及工作情境與搜尋活動的目的。此外,在應用上,透過使用者的資訊任務分析,也能幫助設計者由使用者需求的角度規劃資訊系統,是以使用者導向式資訊系統規劃的重要分析工作之一3)

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References

  • Allen, B. (1996). Information Tasks: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Information Systems. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic Press, Inc. .
  • Bystorm, K. (2005). Information activities in work tasks. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 174-178): Informatio Today.
  • Byström, K., & Hansen, P. (2005). Conceptual framework for tasks in information studies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(10), 1050-1061.
  • Bystrom, K., & Jarvelin, K. (1995). Task complexity affects information seeking and use. Information Processing & Management, 31(2), 191-213.
  • Wildemuth, B. M., & Hughes, A. (2005). Perspectives on the Tasks in which Information Behaviors Are Embedded. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 275-279). Medford, N.J. : Information Today.
  • Xie, I. (2009). Dimensions of tasks: influences on information-seeking and retrieving process. Journal of Documentation, 65(3), 339-366.

<table style="font-size:10pt;text-align:left;"> <tr><th>LIS</th></tr> <tr><td>information_behavior </td></tr> <tr><td>collaborative information behavior</td></tr> <tr><th> Information behavior theories </th></tr> <tr><td> affective_load, anomalous_state_of_knowledge, archival_intelligence, social_cognition, berrypicking, big6_skills for Information Literacy, browsing, cognitive_authority, cognitive_work_analysis, collective_action_dilemma, communicative_action, communities_of_practice, cultural_models_of_hall_and_hofstede, diffusion_theory, The domain_analytic_approach to Scholars Information Practices, ecological_model_of_human_information_behavior, elicitation_as_micro_level_information_seeking, everyday_life_information_seeking, face_threat, flow_theory, general_model_of_the_information_seeking_of_professionals, information_acquiring-and-sharing, information_activities_in_work_tasks, information_encountering, information_grounds, information_horizons, information_intents, information_interchange, information_poverty, information_seeking_behavior_model, information_seeking_model, information_search_process, information_use_environments, institutional_ethnography, integrative_framework_for_information_seeking_and_interactive_information_retrieval, interpretative_repertoires, The imposed_query, library_anxiety, life_in_the_round, monitoring and blunting, motivational_factors_for_interface_design, network_gatekeeping, nonlinear_information_seeking, optimal_foraging, organizational_sense_making_and_information_use, The pain_hypothesis, perspectives_on_the_tasks in which Information Behaviors are Embedded, phenomenography, practice_of_everyday_life, principle_of_least_effort, professions_and_occupational_identities, question-negotiation, radical_change, reader_response_theory, rounding_and_dissonant_grounds, sense-making, serious_leisure, small-world_network, social_capital, social_constructionist_viewpoint_on_information_practices, social_positioning, socio-cognitive_theory, strength_of_weak_ties, symbolic_violence, transtheoretical_model of the health behavior change, value_sensitive_design, web_information_behaviors_of_organizational_workers, willingness_to_return, women_knowing, work_task_information_seeking_and_retrieval_processes, www_information_seeking, Vygotsky's zpd </td></tr></table>

1)
Byström, K., & Hansen, P. (2005). Conceptual framework for tasks in information studies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(10), 1050-1061.
2)
Xie, I. (2009). Dimensions of tasks: influences on information-seeking and retrieving process. Journal of Documentation, 65(3), 339-366.
3)
Allen, B. (1996). Information Tasks: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Information Systems. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic Press.