[博班]分類編目理論研討 台大

Seminar in Cataloging and Classification Theories
98學年度下學期 藍文欽 (lanw@ntu.edu.tw)

課程簡介

本課程旨在探討圖書資訊組織與書目控制的理論基礎與原則,含括的主要內容如下:

  1. 熟悉中外有關圖書分類編目理論的重要文獻及書目語言(bibliographical language)的特性。
  2. 探討資訊世界(information universe)的意涵及資訊組織的目標。
  3. 探討資訊/知識呈現(information/knowledge representation)與書目控制之原則與理論。
  4. 從哲學、認知、語言、生物、書目等觀點,研討分類的基本理論與原則。
  5. 探討圖書分類的理論與原則,並以此為基礎分析比較一些圖書分類體系的架構與特色。

課程進度

2月23日 Introduction / Theory and LIS

[Case for discussion: PI and Theoretical Framework of Descriptive Metadata]

  • Bates, M. J. (2005). An Introduction to metatheories, theories, and models. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez, & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of Information Behavior (pp. 1-29). Medford, NJ: Information Today.
  • Odi, A. (1982). Creative research and theory building in library and information sciences. College and Research Libraries, 43(4), 312-319.
  • Pettigrew, K. E., & McDechnie L. (2001). The Use of Theory in Information Science Research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(1), 62-73.
  • (optional)
    • 何光國(民90年)。圖書館學理論基礎,第二篇。
    • Buckland, M. K. (1988). Library Services in Theory and Context. (2nd ed.) Oxford: Pergamon Press. Chap. 5.
    • Budd, J. M. (2001). Knowledge and Knowing in Library and Information Science: A Philosophical Framework. Lanham: Scarecrow press. Chap. 4-5.
    • Dubin, R. (1978). Theory Building. (Rev. ed.) New York: The Free Press. Chap. 2: Theory (pp. 15-32).
    • Eamon, W. (1990). From the secrets of nature to public knowledge: The origins of the concept of openness in science. In D. C. Lindberg, & R. S. Westman (Eds.), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (pp. 333-366). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Gibbs. J. P. (1972). Sociological Theory Construction. Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden Press. Chap. 5.
    • Glazier, J. D., & Grover, R. (2002). A multidisciplinary framework for theory building. Library Trends, 50(3), 317-329.
    • Kuhn, D., Ansel, E., & O’Laughli, M. (1988). The Development of Scientific Thinking Skills. New York: Academic Press.
    • McGrath, W. E. (2002). Explanation and prediction: Building a unified theory of librarianship, concept and review. Library Trends, 50(3), 350-371.
    • Reynolds, P. D. (1978). Concepts, statements, and scientific knowledge. In A. Wells (Ed.), Contemporary Sociological Theories (pp. 52-77). Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Pub.
    • Vickery, B. (1997). Metatheory and information science. Journal of Documentation, 53(5), 457-476.
    • Carpenter, M., & Svenonius, E. (Eds.) (1985). Foundations of Cataloging: A Sourcebook.
    • Chan, L. M., Richmond, P. A., & Svenonius, E. (Eds.) (1985). Theory of Subject Analysis: A Sourcebook.
    • McGrath,W. E. (Ed.) (2002). Current Theory in Library and Information Science. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.
    • Svenonius, E. (Ed.) (1989). The Conceptual Foundations of Descriptive Cataloging.
    • Theory Building [Bibliography], prepared by the Center for Positive Practices, available online: http://www.positivepractices.com/ResearchDesign/index.html#TheoryBuilding1997

3月2日 我國古代有關分類編目理論的重要文獻

  • 荀子,正名篇
  • 公孫龍子,指物論、白馬論、堅白論、名實論
  • 毋煚,古今書錄序(附於舊唐書經籍志中)
  • 鄭樵,通志校讎略
  • 胡應麟,經籍會通
  • 祁承業,庚申整書略例
  • 章學誠,校讎通義,原道、宗劉、互著、別裁等篇
  • (optional)
    • 墨子,經說。
    • 何光國(民79),圖書資訊組織原理,第八章第一節。
    • 周彥文(民84),中國目錄學理論。
    • 左玉河(2004),從四部之學到七科之學:學術分科與近代中國知識系統之創建。
    • 傅榮賢(民88),中國古代圖書分類學研究。
    • 楊家駱主編(民66)。校讎學系編。台北市:鼎文書局。

3月9日 Bibliographic Objectives / Bibliographic Entities

  • Buckland, M. K. (1997). What is a document Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(9): 804-9.
  • [FRBR]Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report. Chap. 3, Entities.
  • (optional)
    • Buckland, M. (1998). What is a “digital document.” Available online: http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~buckland/digdoc.html
    • Clapp, V. W. (1950). The role of bibliographic organization in contemporary civilization. In J. H. Shera, & M. E. Egan (Eds.), Bibliographic Organization, pp. 3-23.
    • Carlyle, Allyson (1997). Fulfilling the second objective in the online catalog: Schemes for organizing author and work records into usable displays. Library Resources & Technical Services, 41(2): 79-100.
    • Francke, H. (2005). What's in a name? Contextualizing the Document concept. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 20(1), 61-69.
    • Frohmann, B. (2004a). Deflating information. From science studies to documentation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    • Frohmann, B. (2004b). Documentation redux: Prolegomena to (another) philosophy of information. Library Trends, 52(3), 387-407.
    • Graham, Crystal (1990). Definition and scope of multiple versions. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 11(2): 5-32.
    • Leazer, G. H., & Smiraglia, R. P. (1996). Toward the bibliographic control of works: Derivative bibliographic relationships in an online union catalog. In Digital Libraries ’96 (1st ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries, March 20-23, 1996, Bethesda, Maryland) (pp. 36-43). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.
    • Osborn, Andrew D. (1985). The Crisis in Cataloging. In M. Carpenter, & E. Svenonius (Eds.), Foundations of Cataloging: A Sourcebook (pp.90-103). Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited.
    • Principles for Library Catalogues and Other Bibliographic Files. Available online – http://www.ddb.de/standardisierung/pdf/papers_muennich.pdf
    • Smiragliz, R. P. (2001), The Nature of A Work. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
    • Smiraglia, R. P. (2003). The history of ‘the work’ in the modern catalog. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 35(3/4): 553-567.
    • Verona, E. (1959). Literary unit versus bibliographical unit. Libri, 9(2): 79-104. Also in E. Svenonius (Ed.), The Conceptual Foundations of Descriptive Cataloging (pp. 79-104). New York: Academic, 1989.
    • Wilson, P. (1968), Two Kinds of Power, chap. 1.
    • Wilson, P. (1989). The second objective. In E. Svenonius (Ed.), The Conceptual Foundations of Descriptive Cataloging (pp. 5-16). New York: Academic.
    • Yee, Martha M. (1994). Manifestation and near-equivalents: Theory, with special attention to moving-image materials. Library Resources & Technical Services, 38(3): 227-255.
    • Yee, Martha M. (1997). What is a work? International Conferences on the Principles and Future Development of AACR, University of Toronto, Oct. 23-25. Available online: http:// http://collection.nlc-bnc.ca/100/200/300/jsc_aacr/whatis/r-whatis.pdf

3月16日 Principles of Description (1)

3月23日 Principles of Description (2)

3月30日 Scientific Knowledge

  • Giere, R. N. (2006). Scientific Perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ch1: Scientific Knowledge. Available online: http://www.tc.umn.edu/~giere/sp_ch1.pdf
  • Hacking, I. (1999). The Social Construction of What?. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Chap. 3: What about the Natural Sciences? (pp.63-99).
  • Jevons, W. S. (1874). The Principles of Science: A Treatise on Logic and Scientific Method. New York: Dover. Chap. 1: Introduction.
  • Small, H. (2003). Paradigms, citations, and maps of science: A personal history. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(5), 394 - 399.
  • (optional)
    • Budd, J. M. (2001). Knowledge and Knowing in Library and Information Science, Chap. 1-3.
    • Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. [中譯本:知識社會學: 社會實體的建構。台北市:巨流,民80。] Chap. 1.
    • Kuhn, T. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chap. 2: The Route to Normal Science.
    • Snow, C. P.著;林志成、劉藍玉譯。兩種文化。台北市:貓頭鷹出版,2000。

4月6日

溫書假

4月13日 Classification of Knowledge

  • Burke, P. (2000). A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot, chap. 5 : Classifying Knowledge. [中譯本:知識社會史]
  • Jevons, W. S. (1958). The Principles of Science: A Treatise on Logic and Scientific Method. New York: Dover. Chap. 30: Classification.
  • Sokal, R. (1974). Classification: Purposes, principles, progress, prospects.“ Science, 185(no. 4157): 1115-1123. (可由JSTOR Archive取得全文)
  • Vickery, B. C. (1959). Classification and Indexing in Science, Appendix A: Historical Aspects of the Classification of Science (pp. 147-180).
  • (optional)
    • Bowker, G. C., & Star, S. L. (1999). Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. Introduction & Chap. 1.
    • Flint, R. (1904). Philosophy as Scientia Scientiarum.
    • Foucault, M. (1973). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage Books. Chap. 5: Classification; Chap. 10: The Human Sciences.
    • Mayr, E. (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Chap. 4.
    • Wallerstein, I. (1996). Open the Social Sciences, report of the Gulbenkian Commission on the Restructuring of the Social Sciences. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
    • Whitley, Richard (2000). The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences. 2nd ed. Oxford [England] : Oxford University Press, 2000.
    • 王知津(1998)。知識組織的研究範圍及發展策略。中國圖書館學報,第4期,頁3-8。
    • 王知津(1999)。知識空間:知識組織的概念基礎。中國圖書館學報,第5期,頁13-18。
    • 吳萬鈞(1998)。科學知識組織系統。資訊傳播與圖書館學,5卷1期,頁19-42。

4月20日 Class Presentation

Topic: The Application of Theories in the Organization of Information

4月27日 Classification – From the Perspectives of Some Disciplines

  • Mayr, E. (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance, Chap. 5.
  • Ereshefsky, M. (2001). The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Chap. 2: A Primer of Biological Taxonomy.
  • Fuller, S. (1993). Disciplinary boundaries and the rhetoric of the social sciences. In E. Messer-Davidow, D. R. Shumway, & D. J. Sylvan (Eds.), Knowledge: Historical and Critical Studies in Disciplinarity (pp. 125-149). Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
  • Hacking, I. (1999). The Social Construction of What Chap. 5: Kind-making: the case of child abuse
  • (optional)
    • Ereshefsky, M. (2001). The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Chap. 3, 7, & 8.
    • Foucault, Michel. (1994). What is called “punishing”? In James D. Faubion (Ed.), Power: Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984 (pp. 382-393). New York: The New Press.
    • Mayr, E. (1988). Toward a New Philosophy of Biology, Chap. 16: Toward a Synthesis in Biological Classification (pp. 268-288).
    • Ørom, A. (2003). Knowledge Organization in the domain of Art Studies – History, Transition and Conceptual Changes. Knowledge Organization, 30(3/4), 128-143.
    • Zerubavel, E. (1995). The rigid, the fuzzy, and the flexible: notes on the mental sculpting of academic identity. Social Research, 62: 1093-1107.

5月4日 Categorization (1)

  • Rosch, E. (1978). Principle of Categorization. In E. Rosch, & B. B. Lloyd (Eds.), Cognition and Categorization (pp. 27-48). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Also in A. Collins, & E. E. Smith (Eds.), Readings in Cognitive Science, a Perspective from Psychology and Artificial Intelligence (pp. 312-322). San Mateo, California, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Available online: http://originresearch.com/documents/rosch1b.htm
  • Boodman, N. (1992). Seven Strictures on Similarity. In M. Douglas, & D. Hull (Eds.), How Classification Works: Nelson Goodman among the Social Sciences (pp. 13-23). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Douglas, M. (1992). Rightness of Categories. In M. Douglas, & D. Hull (Eds.), How Classification Works: Nelson Goodman among the Social Sciences (pp. 239-271). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • (optional)
    • 亞里士多德著;,秦典華,余紀元譯(民91)。工具論。台北市:慧明文化。「範疇編」(頁17-58)。
    • Lamberts, K., & Shanks, D. (Eds.) (1997), Knowledge, Concepts and Categories. Chap. 2 & 3.
    • Rosch, E. (1977). Human categorization. In N. Warren (Ed.), Studies in Cross-cultural Psychology (V. 1, pp. 1-67). London: Academic Press.

5月11日 Categorization (2)

5月18日 Categorization (3)

5月25日 Knowledge Domain

(繳交讀書心得報告)

6月1日 Library Classification (1)

  • Beghtol, C. (1986). Bibliographic Classification Theory and Text Linguistics: Aboutness Analysis, Intertextuality and the Cognitive Act of Classifying Documents. Journal of Documentation, 42(2): 84-113.
  • Hunter, E. (2000). Do we still need classification? In R. Marcella & A. Maltby (Eds.), The Future of Classification (pp. 1-17). Hampshire: Gower.
  • Miksa, F. L. (1992). The concept of the universe of knowledge and the purpose of LIS classification. In N.J. Williamson & M. Hudon (Eds.), Classification Research for Knowledge Representation and Organization (pp. 101-126). New York: Elsevier Science Pub.
  • (optional)
    • Hjørland, Birger, & Albrechtsen, Hanne. (1999). An analysis of some trends in classification research. Knowledge Organization, 26(3): 131-139.
    • Langridge, D. W. (1995). Alternative starting points in classification. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 19 (3/4), 7-15.
    • Losee, R. M. (1995). How to study classification systems and their appropriateness for individual institutions. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 19 (3/4), 45-58.
    • Maltby, A., & Marcella, R. (2000). Organizing knowledge: The need for system and unity. In R. Marcella & A. Maltby (Eds.), The Future of Classification (pp. 19-31). Hampshire: Gower.
    • Marcella, R., & Newton, R. (1994). A New Manual of Classification. Hampshire: Gower. Chap. 1 & 2.
    • Miksa, F. L. (1993). Classification.
    • Miksa, F. L. (1998). The DDC, the Universe of knowledge, and the Post-Modern Library, pp. 33-82.
    • Neelameghan, A. Theory of classification: Emergence of general theory of library classification. In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, v. 5, pp. 147-174.
    • Poli, R. (1996). Ontology for knowledge organization. In R. Green (Ed.), Knowledge Organization and Change (Proceedings of the 4m International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Washington, D.C.) (313-319). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag. Available online: http://www.mitteleuropafoundation.it/Papers/RP/Ontology%20for%20knowledge%20organization.pdf
    • Quinn, B. (1994). Recent theoretical approaches in classification and indexing. Knowledge Organization, 21(3), 140-147.
    • Rafferty, Pauline (2001). The representation of knowledge in library classification schemes. Knowledge Organization, 28(4): 180-191.
    • Short, E. C. (1995). Knowledge and the educational purposes of higher education: Implications for the design of a classification scheme. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 19 (3/4), 59-66.
    • Svenonius, E. (1992). Classification: Prospects, problems and possibilities. In N. J. Williamson, & M. Hudon (Eds.), Classification Research for Knowledge Representation and Organization (pp. 5-25). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    • Svenonius, E. (2000). The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization. Chap. 8, 9, & 10.
    • Taylor, A. G. (2004). The Organization of Information. 2nd ed. Chap. 11.

6月8日 Library Classification (2)

  • Bliss, H. E. (1929). The Organization of Knowledge and the System of the Sciences. New York: Henry Holt. Chap. 11, 12, & 13
  • Ranganathan, S. R. (1967). Prolegomena to Library Classification. 3rd. ed. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, pp. 54-96.
  • Richardson, Ernest C. (1930). Classification: Theoretical and practical. 3rd ed. New York: H.W. Wilson, pp. 1-42.
  • Beghtol, C. (1989). Access to fiction: A problem in classification theory and practice. Part I. International Classification, 16(3): 134-140.
  • Beghtol, C. (1990). Access to fiction: A problem in classification theory and practice. Part II. International Classification, 17(4): 21-27.
  • Beghtol, C. (1986). Semantic validity: Concepts of warrant in bibliographic classification systems. Library Resources & Technical Services, 30(2), 109-125.
  • (optional)
    • Aitchison, J. (1986). A classification as a source for a thesaurus: The Bibliographic Classification of H. E. Bliss as a source of thesaurus terms and structure. Journal of Documentation, 42(3), 161-181
    • Beghtol, C. (1994). The Classification of Fiction: The Development of a System Based on Theoretical Principles. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Chap. 2-5.
    • Foskett, D. J. (1992). Ranganathan and user-friendliness. Libri, 42(3), 227-234.
    • McIlwaine, I. C. (1997). The Universal Decimal Classification: Some factors concerning its origins, development and influence. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 48(4), 331-339.
    • Satija, M. P. (1997). The revision and future of Colon Classification. Knowledge Organization, 24(1), 18-23.
    • Star, S. L. (1998). Grounded classification: Grounded theory and faceted classification. Library Trends, 47(2), 218-232.
    • Thomas, A. R. (1995). Blissful beliefs: Henry Evelyn Bliss counsels on classification. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 19 (3/4), 17-22.

6月15日 (Language and Knowledge Presentation)-- tentative

  • Benediktsson, D. (1989). Hermeneutics: Dimensions toward LIS thinking. Library and Information Science Research, 11, 201-234.
  • Blair, D. C. (2003). Information retrieval and the philosophy of language. In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, V.37 (pp. 3-50). Medford, NJ: Information Today.
  • Kaplan, A. (1964). The age of the symbol: A philosophy of library education. Library Quarterly, 34, 295-304.
  • Warner, J. (1990). Semiotics, information science documents and computers. Journal of Documentation, 46(1), 16-32.
  • Wright, H. C. (1986). The symbol and its referent: An issue for library education. Library Trends, 34(4), 729-776.
  • (optional)
    • Blair, D. C. (1990). Language and Representation in Information Retrieval. Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier Science Publishers.
    • Blair, D. C. (1992). Information retrieval and the philosophy of language. Computer Journal 35(3), 200-207.
    • Cornelius, Ian. 1996. Meaning and Method in Information Studies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.
    • Eco, U. (1999). Kant and the Platypus: Essays on Language and Cognition. London: Secker & Warburg. Chap. 4: The Platypus Between the Dictionary and Encyclopedia (pp. 224-279).
    • Olson, H. A. (2002). The Power to Name: Locating the Limits of Subject Representation in Libraries. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    • 翁貝爾托‧埃科(Umberto Eco)著,王天清譯。符號學與語言哲學。天津:百花文藝出版社,2005。
    • 索爾‧克里普克(Saul Kripke)著,梅文譯。命名與必然性。上海:上海譯文出版社,2005。

6月22日 (Presentation and Discussion)

6月28日下午5點以前繳交期末報告

指定讀物

任選一本閱讀

  • Bowker, G., & Star, S. L. (1999). Sorting Thing Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Iyer, H. (1995). Classificatory Structures: Concepts, Relations, and Representation. Frankfurt: Indeks Verlag.
  • Langridge, D. W. (1992). Classification: Its Kinds, Elements, Systems and Applications. London: Bowker-Saur.
  • Szostak, R. (2004). Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

References

  • 左玉河(2004)。從四部之學到七科之學:學術分科與近代中國知識系統之創建。上海:上海書店。
  • 何光國(民79)。圖書資訊組織原理。台北市 : 三民。
  • 何光國(民90)。圖書館學理論基礎。台北:三民。
  • 余慶蓉,王晉卿(1998)。中國目錄學思想史。湖南教育出版社。
  • 周彥文(民84)。中國目錄學理論。台北市:臺灣學生。
  • 張慧銖(民92)。圖書館目錄發展研究。台北市:文華圖書館管理。
  • 高紅(2008)。編目思想史。北京:北京圖書館出版社。
  • 陳洪瀾(2008)。知識分類與知識資源認識論。北京:人民出版社。
  • 傅榮賢(民88)。中國古代圖書分類學研究。台北市:臺灣學生。
  • Batley, S. (2005). Classification in Theory and Practice. Oxford: Chandos.
  • Bean, C. A., & Green, R. (2001). Relationships in the Organization of Knowledge. Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Beghtol, C. (1986). Bibliographic Classification Theory and Text Linguistics: Aboutness Analysis, Intertextuality and the Cognitive Act of Classifying Documents. Journal of Documentation, 42(2): 84-113.
  • Beghtol, C. (1989). Access to Fiction: A Problem in Classification Theory and Practice. Part I. International Classification, 16(3): 134-140.
  • Beghtol, C. (1990). Access to Fiction: A Problem in Classification Theory and Practice. Part II. International Classification, 17 (4): 21-27 .
  • Beghtol, C. (1995). “Facets” as Interdisciplinary Undiscovered Public Knowledge. Journal of Documentation, 51(3): 194-224.
  • Beghtol, C. (1998). Knowledge Domains: Multidisciplinary and Bibliographic Classification Systems. Knowledge Organization, 25 (1/2): 1-12.
  • Bengtson, B. G., & Hill, J. S. (Eds.) (1990). Classification of Library Materials: Current and Future Potential for Providing Access. New York: Neal-Schuman.
  • Blair, D. C. (1990). Language and Representation in Information Retrieval. Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier Science Publishers.
  • Bliss, H. E. (1929). The Organization of Knowledge and the System of the Sciences. New York: Henry Holt.
  • Borgman, C. L. (2000). From Gutenberg to the Global Information Infrastructure: Access to Information in the Networked World. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.
  • Bowker, G., & Star, S. L. (1999). Sorting Thing Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Broughton, V. (2004). Essential Classification. London: Facet Publishing.
  • Buchanan, B. (1979). Theory of Library Classification. London: Clive Bingley.

Burke, P. (2000). A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot. Cambridge, UK: Polity. [中譯本書名:知識社會史,麥田出版]

  • Carpenter, M., & Svenonius, E. (Eds.) (1985). Foundations of Cataloging: A Sourcebook. Littleton, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited.
  • Carter, R. C. (2000). Managing Cataloging and the Organization of Information : Philosophies, Practices, and Challenges at the Onset of the 21st Century. Binghamton, NY : Haworth Information Press.
  • Chan, L. M. (2007). Cataloging and Classification: An Introduction. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD.: Scarecrow Press.
  • Chan, L. M., Richmond, P. A., & Svenonius, E. (Eds.) (1985). Theory of Subject Analysis: A Sourcebook. Littleton, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited.
  • Chowdhury, G. G., & Chowdhury, S. (2007). Organizing Information from the Shelf to the Web. London: Facet Publishing.

Dreyfus, H L. and Rabinow, P. (1983) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Eco, U. (1999). Kant and the Platypus: Essays on Language and Cognition. London: Secker & Warburg.
  • Ellen, R. F., & Reason, D. (Eds). (1979). Classifications in Their Social Context. London: Academic Press.
  • Ereshefsky, M. (2001). The Poverty of the Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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