Technological frames: making sense of information technology in organizations / Orlikowski & Gash (1994)

Citation - Orlikowski, W., & Gash, D. (1994). Technological frames: making sense of information technology in organizations. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), 12(2), 174-207.

Keyword -

ABSTRACT 摘要(page II)

  • In this paper, we build a theoretical framework to extend research into users' and designers' cognitions and values by proposing a systematic approach to examining the underlying assumptions, expectations, and knowledge that people have about technology.
    此文中,作者提出一理論框架,系統性的將研究擴展到使用者與設計者的認知與價值。透過此理論框架,得以檢驗人們關於技術假定、預期、與知識。
  • Such interpretations of technology (which we label technological frames) are central to understanding technological development, use, and change in organizations as they critically influence the way people act around technology.
    技術影響人們的行為方式。我們稱為「技術框架」的詮釋方法,是理解技術在組織中發展、運用、與變革的核心。
  • We suggest that where the technological frames of key groups in organizations–such as managers, technologists, and users–are significantly different, difficulties and conflict around the development, use, and change of technology may result.
    我們認為,組織中關鍵團體間 – 如經理人、技術專家、使用者 – 的「技術框架」是不同的,並且在技術的發展、運用、與變革中產生了困難與衝突。
  • We use the findings of an empirical study to illustrate how the nature, value, and use of a groupware technology were interpreted differently by various organizational stakeholders, resulting in outcomes that deviated from those expected.
    實徵研究的發現組織中各種利害關係人對群組軟體技術的本質、價值與運用,有著各自不同的詮釋,與隨之而來的期望落差。
  • We argue that technological frames offer an interesting and useful analytic perspective for explaining and anticipating actions and meanings around information technology that are not easily obtained with other theoretical lenses.
    我們主張,「技術框架」能夠提供一種有趣且有用的分析視角,用來解釋與預測資訊技術所帶來的行動與意義,而這正是其他理論所難以處理的。

Quotes

  • “We argue that an understanding of people's interpretations of a technology is critical to understanding their interaction with it.” (p.1)
    了解人們會如何詮釋技術,也就是了解他們會如何與技術互動的關鍵。
  • “Pinch and Bijker (1987) argue that because technological artifacts may be interpreted differently by multiple social groups, different social groups will construct different interpretations of the technology based on their interactions with it.” (p.7)
    由於技術性製品會被不同的社會群體不同地詮釋,所以不同的社會群體會根據他們與技術的互動經驗,建構出不同的技術解釋系統。(這句話有解釋的迴圈)

前言

  • 設計師與使用者認知,對資訊系統的影響:
    • Bostrom & Heinen (1977)系統設計者研究框架:Bostrom and Heinen (1977) suggested that many of the social problems associated with the implementation of information systems (IS) were due to the frames of reference of system designers.
      認為許多社會問題與資訊系統相關,因此提出了一個研究系統設計者的參考框架。
      • 後續研究:
      • 設計者價值觀、對使用者看法,對資訊系統的影響:Dagwell and Weber (1983) and Kumar and Bj0rn-Andersen (1990) examined the influence of designers' values and views of users on systems development.
      • 設計師概念框架,對資訊系統的影響: Boland (1978, 1979) showed that designers' conceptual frameworks influenced the kind of systems they designed.
    • 使用者對資訊系統的預期型塑了他們對資訊系統的態度: Ginzberg (1981), in turn, investigated how users' expectations of a pending information system significantly shaped their attitudes toward it.
    • 此後,研究者認為設計者與使用者的觀點與價值,是資訊系統社會面向的一部分: Since these studies, researchers have considered designers' and users' perceptions and values as part of their examination of the social aspects of information technology (Hirschheim and Klein, 1989; Kling and Iacono, 1989; Markus, 1984).
    • 然而,對於資訊系統的設計與使用,並沒有一個系統性的研究參考框架

The concept of frames | 框架的概念

  • social cognitive research (Berger & Luckmann, 1967; Smircich & Stubbart 1985; Weick 1979a)
    社會認知研究的相關
  • The frames of organizational members are implicit guidelines that organize and shape their interpretations of events' and organizational phenomena and give them meaning(Moch and Bartunek, 1990; Weick 1979b).
  • Frames: (p.2-4)
    • people's “definitions of organizational reality that serve as vehicles for understanding and action” (Gioia, 1986:50).
      框架是「組織中的現實,人們依此理解與行動」
    • “They include assumptions, knowledge, and expectations, expressed symbolically through language, visual images, metaphors, and stories.” (p.3)
      框架包含:假定、知識、預期、透過語言的符號表述、視覺映像、隱喻、與故事。
    • “Frames are cognitive structures or mental models that are held by individuals.”
      框架是個人所持有的認知結構或心智模式。(p.5)
    • “Frames are flexible in structure and content, having variable dimensions that shift in salience and content by context and over time. They are structured more as webs of meanings than as linear, ordered graphs (Gioia, 1986)”.
      框架是有彈性的結構與內容,擁有多樣的面向,隨著時間與脈絡轉換其特點與內容。框架更像是一種意義的網絡,而不是線性的秩序。
    • “They typically operate in the background and have both facilitating and constraining effects.”
    • “On the one hand, as Gioia (1986:346) notes, frames are facilitative when they: structure organizational experience; allow interpretation of ambiguous situations; reduce uncertainty in conditions of complexity and changing conditions; and provide a basis for taking action.
    • “frames are also constraining when they: reinforce unreflective reliance on established assumptions and knowledge; distort information to make it fit existing cognitive structures; and inhibit creative problem solving.”
researches about shared cognitive schemes
認知地圖 cognitive maps Bougon, Weick, and Binkhorst(1977); Eden(1992)
框架 frames Goffman(1974)
詮釋框架 interpretive frames Bartunek & Moch (1987)
詮釋基模 interpretative schemes Giddens (1984)
心智模型 mental models Schutz (1970); Argyris and Schon (1978)
典範 paradigms Kuhn (1970); Sheldon (1980)
腳本 scripts Abelson (1981); Gioia (1986)
thought worlds Douglas (1987); Dougherty (1992)
  • Sharing of Frames 框架的分享
    • 三種分享框架的形式: Weick and Bougon (1986:112):
      • 裝配在個人框架上的共同面向 an assemblage that ties individual frames together through common dimensions;
      • 與群體成員透過討論而共同建構、能互相理解的合成物 a composite which is formed by group members jointly constructing a common understanding through discussion;
      • 與其他個人框架交集的平均處 an average which represents the intersection of individuals' frames comprising the group.
    • Wittgenstein's (1953) 的家族相似性(family resemblances)
  • Technological (shared) Frames 技術框架(或應該稱為「組織技術認知框架」?)
    • “We use the term technological frame to identify that subset of members' organizational frames that concern the assumptions, expectations, and knowledge they use to understand technology in organizations.”(p.6)
      我們用「技術框架」這個詞,來指稱成員間,對於理解技術所需的假定、預期與知識的組織框架子集合。
  • Congruence of Technological Frames 技術框架的全等
    • “Congruence in technological frames as referring to the alignment of frames on key elements or categories.” (p.8)
      技術框架中的「全等」是指,將框架向關鍵要素或類別的校正對準。

Note