A multidimensional approach to the study of human information interaction / Fidel, Pejtersen, Cleal & Bruce(2004)

Citation - Fidel, R., Mark Pejtersen, A., Cleal, B., & Bruce, H. (2004). A multidimensional approach to the study of human information interaction: A case study of collaborative information retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55(11), 939-953.

Keyword - Information Behavior, Cognitive Work Analysis, collaborative information behavior

Abstract

  • 背景/動機:以往人資行為研究大多專注在單一面向:心理或社會。本研究試圖結合這兩者。
    While most research in the area of human-information behavior has focused on a single dimension—either the psychological or the social—this case study demonstrated the importance of a multidimensional approach.
  • 假定:
  • 方法:此一微軟設計工程師的「協同資訊檢索行為」實地研究,採用認知工作分析框架(Cognitive Work Analysis framework) ,運用了觀察與訪談方法。由不同面向解釋各個參與者「協同檢索行為(CIR)」所面臨不同層次的挑戰:在認知、任務與決策、組織與團隊、以及組織文化。
    The Cognitive Work Analysis framework guided this field study of one event of collaborative information retrieval (CIR) carried out by design engineers at Microsoft, including observations and interviews. Various dimensions explained the motives for this CIR event and the challenges the participants encountered: the cognitive dimension, the specific task and decision, the organization of the teamwork, and the organizational culture.
  • 資料:
  • 發現:雖然各面向之間難以切分,且所有面向都是互相相關的,但仍能發現一些設計工程師投入在協同檢索的理由,如,當他們新加入這個組織或團隊時、當資訊呈現出許多不同的解釋時、當需要許多沒有被文件化的資訊時。
    Even though it is difficult at times to separate one dimension from another, and all are interdependent, the analysis uncovered several reasons for design engineers to engage in CIR, such as when they are new to the organization or the team, when the information lends itself to various interpretations, or when most of the needed information is not documented.
  • 貢獻:類似的多面向研究能增進我們對人資行為的理解。
    Similar multidimensional studies will enhance our understanding of human-information behavior.

Content

  • Approaches to the Study of Human-Information Interaction
    • The Psychological Approach
    • The Social Approach
    • Multidimensional Approaches
  • The Conceptual Framework: Cognitive Work Analysis
面相 Dimension 分析問題範例 Examples of questions to ask in analysis
環境 Environment 有什麼在組織之外的因素影響他 What elements outside the organization affect it?
工作領域 Work domain 工作領域中有哪些目標?限制?優先順序?功能?物體上的程序?利用哪些工具?What are the goals of the work domain? The constraints? The priorities? The functions? What physical processes take place? What tools are employed?
組織分析 Organizational analysis 團隊如何分工?使用哪些標準?組織的本質?科層制、民主制、無秩序?組織性的價值為何?How is work divided among teams? What criteria are used? What is the nature of the organization, hierarchical, democratic, chaotic? What are the organizational values?
工作領域上的任務分析 Task analysis in work domain terms 任務是什麼(例如,設計導覽功能)?產生資訊問題的任務目標為何?其限制?涉及的功能?所使用的工具? What is the task (e.g., design of navigation functionality)? What are the goals of the task that generated an information problem? Constraints? The functions involved? The tools used?
決策上的工作分析 Task analysis in decision-making terms 做了哪些決策(例,選擇哪種導覽模式)?決策需要哪些資訊?哪些資訊資源是有用? What decisions are made (e.g., what model to select for the navigation)? What information is required? What sources are useful?
策略上的工作分析 Task analysis in terms of strategies that can be used 哪些策略是可能的(例,瀏覽、分析)?行動者偏好哪種策略?需要哪些資訊?偏好哪些資訊來源? What strategies are possible (e.g., browsing, the analytical strategy)? What strategies does the actor prefer? What type of information is needed? What information sources does the actor prefer?
個人的資源與價值 Actor’s resources and values 行為者受過哪些正規訓練?是哪種專家?有哪些主題領域或工作領域的經驗?個人的優先順序為何?個人的價值觀為何?What is the formal training of the actor? Area of expertise? Experience with the subject domain and the work domain? Personal priorities? Personal values?

Note