Actor-Network Theory(ANT) [行動者網絡理論]

或譯: 行動者網路理論

定義

  • 行動者網路理論是一種社會科學的研究取向與方法理論,其關注的範疇為理解或說明人類的技術活動,如科學研究、專業技術、設計規劃等等。相對於傳統的技術研究取向,對人類科學與技術的發展,偏於英雄傳記式的解釋(例如牛頓發明地心引力,愛因斯坦發明相對論),行動者網絡理論認為人類的技術成就,是所有的周邊因素,如工具、朋友、所處的社群、宗教文化等等,所形成的網絡整體運作的結果。
  • 行動者網路理論的特色,認為技術網絡中,想要爭取利益的「行動者」不只有人類而已,也包含了當中的「非人元素」,如實驗室、鑰匙、牡蠣等等。即,科技(science-technology)是由行動者/被行動者(Actors/Acant,可以是人或非人)所連結構成的異質性網絡(heterogeneous networks)所創造與維護。
  • 此理論認為,「科技」為了自身的動機與旨趣(interests)而採取行動,並構成網絡中的元件與連結關係。其建立的行動者網絡更大更強,則越有可能在社會中存在與維持,也就越成功。
  • <is>:研究在整合旨趣的異質網路中建立元件、連結關係的行動者,其行動與動機。
  • 其主要特色,是其「行動者/作用者(actor, actant)」可以是人,也可以是非人,如技術性人造物。
  • 其主要應用於,解釋 [結合旨趣的相對穩定網路]建立與維護 的 過程,或研究此網路無法建立的原因。
  • 其主要論點(argument):成功的結合旨趣網路,是透過於特定聚合體上的結盟,以及對各自利益的轉換;因此他們願意 以特定的思考與活動方式 參與網路的維護。
  • “Actor-network theory examines the motivations and actions of actors who form elements, linked by associations, of heterogeneous networks of aligned interests. A key feature of the theory is that actors (or actants as they are sometimes labeled) are taken to include both human beings and nonhuman actors such as technological artifacts. A major focus of the theory when applied in particular contexts is to try to trace and explain the processes whereby relatively stable networks of aligned interests are created and maintained, or alternatively to examine why such networks fail to establish themselves. Successful networks of aligned interests are created through the enrollment of a sufficient body of allies and the translation of their interests so that they are willing to participate in particular ways of thinking and acting that maintain the network.” (Walsham & Sahay, 1999)

就資訊技術方面而言,此一網路包含了人、機構與組織、軟體、計算機與通訊硬體、與網路架構標準。(Walsham, 1997)

關鍵概念 Key concepts of ANT

Concept Description
Actor (or actant)
行動者/被行動者
Both human beings and nonhuman actors such as technological artifacts
人與非人的行動者(actor)都是一種技術性的人造物
Actor-network
行動者-網路
Heterogeneous network of aligned interests, including people, organizations and standards.
旨趣結合的異質網路,包含眾人、組織與標準
Enrollment and translation
結盟與轉換
Creating a body of allies, human and non-human, through a process of translating their interests to be aligned with the actor-network
建立結盟的主體。人與非人經由轉換其旨趣(利益)而在行動者網路中結合的過程
Delegates and inscription
代言與銘印
Delegates are actors who “stand in and speak for” particular viewpoints which have been inscribed in them, e.g., software as frozen organizational discourse
行動者挺身為銘印在自身內的特定觀點說話,稱為代言
Irreversibility
不可逆性
The degree to which it is subsequently impossible to go back to a point where alternative possibilities exist
Black box
黑盒子
A frozen network element, often with properties of irreversibility
已凍結的網路元件。通常有不可逆性
Immutable mobile
不變元件
Network element with strong properties of irreversibility, and effects which transcend time and place, e.g., software standards
具有強不可逆性的網路元件,其效應能超越時間空間。如,軟體標準

(by Walsham, 1997)

轉化 Translation 4階段

  • Problematation 提出問題
  • Interessement 利益與共
  • Enrollement 結盟
  • Mobilisation 動員

翻譯詞彙

  • Actor-network theory | 行動者網絡理論
  • action(s) | 行動
  • actor(s) | 行動者
  • aligned interest(s) | 結合的旨趣/利益
  • artifact(s) | 人造物
  • context(s) | 脈絡
  • delegates | 代言
  • element(s) | 元件
  • enrollment | 結盟
  • human and nonhuman | 人與非人
  • inscription | 銘印
  • interest(s) | 旨趣/利益
  • irreversibility | 不可逆性
  • network(s) | 網絡
  • translation | 轉化

References

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