Persona(s) [人物角色/代面]

Persona(s)在拉丁語中原意是指戲劇扮演時,用來表示某種角色的假面。中國古代也有同樣概念,即「代面」「臉譜」之意。

舊唐書音樂志:「代面出於北齊。北齊蘭陵王長恭,才武而面美,常著假面以對敵,嘗擊周師金墉城下,勇冠三軍,齊人壯之,為此舞以效其指揮擊刺之容,謂之蘭陵王入陣曲。」

演員戴上某種特定的面具,即代表扮演特定的角色,包含其背景、個性、偏好與行為特色。此意後來引申為一種特定的社會人物圖像或角色。並在傳播、行銷、互動設計等領域,都據此概念發展出各自的方法與工具。

Persona(s)在互動設計領域

Persona(s)1)在HCI/UCD/UX 等設計領域中,是專指一種設計方法與工具。Personas 透過對於一些使用者原型(archetype )的描繪,作為貫穿整個設計過程中,凝聚團隊共識,以及檢查確認每一項功能是否符合使用者需求的方法。

Personas 此一互動/軟體介面設計工具,最早由美國軟體設計師Alan Cooper在 “Inmates Are Running the Asylum”(1988,中譯: 軟件創新之路)一書中所提出。並在其互動設計方法經典“About Face”中進一步發揚,因此在軟體設計/人機介面設計/互動設計領域中,備受重視。

儘管,Alan Cooper 對其 Persona方法有詳細的定義與取捨,但也有許多設計師或使用性研究人員並沒有完全採用Cooperian 的 Personas,而進一步結合了不同的方法發展出各自的 Personas方法。

作為設計工具的Personas 之目的

Alan Cooper(2007)2)認為 Personas 應用在設計上,可以達成以下目的:

  • 決定產品規格與作用。Personas 所定義的目的與任務,可以提供設計工作的基礎。
    Determine what a product should do and how it should behave. Persona goals and tasks provide the foundation for the design effort.
  • 與團隊中不同成員溝通。Personas 是設計決策討論中的共通語言,能幫助設計的各個階段都能聚焦在使用者上。
    Communicate with stakeholders, developers, and other designers. Personas provide a common language for discussing design decisions and also help keep the design centered on users at every step in the process.
  • 建立共識,釐清設計主張。減少發展複雜的使用者圖解模型。
    Build consensus and commitment to the design. With a common language comes a common understanding. Personas reduce the need for elaborate diagrammatic models; it's easier to understand the many nuances of user behavior through the narrative structures that personas employ. Put simply, because personas resemble real people, they're easier to relate to than feature lists and flowcharts.
  • 測量設計效力。Personas 無法取代以真人來進行測試的有效性,但提供設計者一個解決設計問題的有效的工具,並在真人測試前提供一個有力的設計基準。
    Measure the design's effectiveness. Design choices can be tested on a persona in the same way that they can be shown to a real user during the formative process. Although this doesn't replace the need to test with real users, it provides a powerful reality-check tool for designers trying to solve design problems. This allows design iteration to occur rapidly and inexpensively at the whiteboard, and it results in a far stronger design baseline when the time comes to test with actual people.
  • 協助其他與產品相關的工作,如行銷與銷售計畫擬定。
    Contribute to other product-related efforts such as marketing and sales plans. The authors have seen their c1ientsrepurpose personas across their organization, informing marketing campaigns, organizational structure, and other strategic planning activities. Business units outside of product development desire sophisticated knowledge of a product's users and typically view personas with great interest.

Alan Cooper(2007)3)認為 Personas 可以避免三種設計問題:

  • 變形蟲使用者(The elastic user)
  • 自我感覺良好(Self-referential design)
  • 特異的個案(Edge cases)

Cooper-Personas

Cooper-Personas (正統Cooper式的Personas)是一種目標導向的設計方法與工具。將使用者依據其目的進行分群,並進一步詳述其為了完成目標所必須執行的工作任務、所需具備的技能或背景知識等能力與資源。

不同於正規的人類學/心理學式的理性使用者行為研究,也不同於行銷/傳播專業中的消費者人口統計偏好調查,Personas方法相對地更簡單,更隨意,更不講求邏輯;更偏向於實務上的效率與便利性。以下段落取自Cooper自述,其Persona方法與學術/行銷研究的不同。

Alan Cooper (2003)4):

雖然我很想說 personas 是反直覺的,但更準確的說,personas 是反邏輯的。我猜這是為什麼這種方法是起源自實務工作,而非學術界或實驗室。
“I’m tempted to say that personas are counter-intuitive, but it would be more accurate to say that they are counter-logical. I suspect that this is why they originated in practice rather than in the laboratory or in academia.”


If, responding to the directive design for the user, you follow logic, you tend to canvass the user community, collect their requests for functions, and then provide them a product containing all of those functions. I call this “the sum of all desired features.” There is abundant empirical proof that this solution is only marginally effective at best. The problem is that while logic is a powerful and effective programming tool, it is a pathetically weak and inappropriate interaction design tool.


許多我的後繼者進行的是人類學研究,建立了類似 Persona 的架構以協助設計工作。產品行銷專家也使用了類似Persona的方式,定義人口統計區隔。但 Persona 不同於這些方法,且是特別有效的。
Many of my predecessors have employed ethnographic user research and created persona-like constructs to aid their designing. Product marketing professionals have also been using persona-like entities for many years to define demographic segments. But personas are unique and uniquely effective.

Grudin & Pruitt Personas

不同於Cooper, 認為需要透過各種方法(質化量化)力求獲得正確、具有代表性的 Personas。

Pruitt, J., & Adlin, T. (2006). The persona lifecycle: Keeping people in mind throughout product design.

CWA-WDA Personas

我根據cognitive work analysis 中的工作領域分析(work domain analysis)方法,所建立的Personas 架構。特點在於,每一層與下一層有著手段-目的關係(Means-Ends relationship)。

Means-Ends Relationship of Goals/Attributes/Behavior - Goals & Purpose - Priority | Interest | Value | Attribute - General Function | Task - Physical Process | Behavior - Resources | Appearance, Location, and Configuration of Material Objects | (Cognitive: Knowledge, Habitus, Memory)

Persona Segment

Personas 的建構是基於對於實際人們對於某設計使用情境、背景與脈絡的了解,而進行的假定。對設計(互動介面設計/網站設計/軟體設計/etc.)而言,Personas 需要描繪的不是具體的功能使用途徑,而是其個性、背景、偏好、需求與目的。在行為部分的描繪,需要著重於既有的行為習慣,而非著重於具體與介面互動的行動。

- 目的| Goals - 偏好/興趣/厭惡點| Attributes/Interest/Pain-point - 既有路徑/習慣/習性| Behavior-routing/Path/Habitus - 任務/行動(有意圖或目標導向的)| Tasks/Action - 物質環境/資源| Material-Environment/Resources (Devices & Context) - 經驗/領域知識/認知資源| Experinece/Domain-Knowledge/Cognitive-Resources

要包含像是真實的人與圖像

- 容易溝通 - 容易記憶

Personas (行銷)

在行銷/市場研究中的 Persona,通常是透過量化調查研究工具,找出各種消費者偏好的族群區隔。 依據該量化研究工具的設計,行銷/市場研究的族群區隔可以是人口統計式的(demographic),也可以是行為或態度偏好式的,例如:常常收視某種電視節目的。

Ref

1)
目前並沒有統一的譯法,有角色、人物角色、人物,等。但其實我喜歡「代面」這種譯法
2)
Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About face 3: the essentials of interaction design. P.78-9
3)
Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About face 3: the essentials of interaction design. P.79-80