Second-hand knowledge: An inquiry into cognitive authority / Wilson (1983)

Citation - Wilson, P. (1983). Second-hand knowledge: An inquiry into cognitive authority. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press

Keyword -


  • First-hand and Second-hand Knowledge
  • Cognitive Authority
  • The Knowledge Industry: Quality and Fashion
  • The Knowledge Industry: Institutional Authority
  • Cognitive Authority in Everyday Life
  • Information Retrieval and Cognitive Authority

Ch 1

  • Perspective 視角的隱喻
    • 人們會用感官所能掌握的事物,來比喻抽象的概念。例如以視覺能掌握的遠近、大小、高低等等。人們用那些向度與規則的比喻,來掌握社會經驗?
    • 首先想到的是大小與距離,離我自己越近的看起來越大,也就越重要。我們都是自我中心的,並且都學著修正這些越近自我越大的錯覺,但很難說我們都做得很好。
    • 角落規則。我們只能接觸到對方願意呈現給我們的那一個正面(front),而在角落旁觀者往往會看到另一種。
    • 根據我們社會位置的不同,會體驗到不同的社會世界。位置是取決於我們的時間、空間、與社會關係網絡。
  • Lenses 透鏡
    • 不同的立場/視角(perspective)的人有不同的世界觀。概念、理論與習慣形塑他們所看到的世界。
    • 即便不透過概念與理論,人們也必須透過常識(common sense)才能理解世界。而根據Geertz,常識就是一種理論架構。


Our talk about what we think and what we learn is pervaded by metaphors, especially spatial and visual ones.

The closer we are to some feature of social life, the bigger it seems to us–bigger in the sense of importance, salience, significance, bigger in the sense that it occupies a larger share of attention, effort, interest, reflection.
在社會生活中離我們越近的,顯得越大 – 越大表示越重要、突出、顯著,越大表示佔據了更多的注意、力氣、興趣與反覆思考。(p.4)

The concepts and theories and habitual modes of thoughts one carries around will determine how the world looks and what one makes of what one sees, as much as will the social location form which one views the world.
概念、理論與思考習慣,與社會地位一樣,決定了一個人對世界的看法。 (p.6)

A basic metaphysics and epistemology are parts of everyone's mental furniture. The name for them is common sense. As the anthropologist Clifford Geertz says, common sense is a theory of the world–a thin theory but nevertheless theory. (p.7)


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