Hastily formed networks for disaster response / Törnqvist et al.(2009)

Citation - Törnqvist, E., Sigholm, J., & Nadjm-Tehrani, S. (2009). Hastily Formed Networks for Disaster Response: Technical Heterogeneity and Virtual Pockets of Local Order. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference.

Keyword - Hastily Formed Networks

Abstract

  • 藉著新興的資訊通訊技術(ICT)基礎建設,多組織應急網絡於災後應變的協同挑戰。
    This paper describes the challenges of collaboration within multi-organisational hastily formed networks for post-disaster response, which are increasingly relying on emerging ICT infrastructures for communication and cooperation.
  • 針對建立有效的共同對話空間的條件,與如何發展出一影響認知與行為的社會-技術系統,以建立實踐社群與虛擬秩序,進行跨學科分析。
    We present an interdisciplinary analysis of the conditions for establishing an effective mutual conversation space for involved stakeholders, and how the development of socio-technological systems affects cognitive and behavioural aspects such as established communities of practice and virtual pockets of local order.
  • 根據我們的觀察,有些因素能克服組織與文化間的異質性,並找出克服技術互操作性的方法,以確保在應急網絡中組織參與資訊交換的有效性、穿透性與持續力。
    Our observations thus far suggest that some of the key issues are overcoming organisational and cultural heterogeneity, and finding solutions for technical interoperability, to ensure effective, pervasive and sustainable information exchange within and between organisations participating in hastily formed networks.

介紹數種HFN通訊技術

當正規的通訊基礎架構被摧毀時(wire line, mobile telephony systems, power grids, mass media broadcast networks),可採取的方案:

  • 傳統:建立暫時基礎架構。如柴油發電機、貨櫃行動電話系統、微波通訊、衛星通訊設備等。缺點是昂貴無法大量部署,也無法與非政府組織合作
    … establish temporary infrastructures, such as diesel generators, container-based mobile telephony systems, microwave links and satellite communication equipment. Although this is an available course of action, and in fact the one mainly in use in today’s disaster response operations, it is a very costly approach in geographically extended incident scenes. The use of specialised equipment might also prevent seamless integration of voluntary forces or non-governmental organisations.
  • 無基礎架構通訊方案,如地面中繼式無線電(Tetra)
    infrastructure-less ICT solutions, Tetra (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) standard.
  • IP基礎的隨建即連網路(IP-based mobile ad-hoc network, MANET))平台。通常這種平台是基於軟體無線電(Software-defined Radio, SDR)與開放原始碼系統實做的。例如美國軍方發展的 Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)。

Note

file link - Google Schloar, XXC