Knowing by structuring / Nystrand (1977)

Citation: Nystrand, M. (1977). Knowing by structuring. In M. Nystrand (Ed.), Language as a way of knowledge (pp. 5-11). Toronto: The Ontario institute for studiees in education.

當代主要研究的概念之一,是關於行動人建構此世表徵,並且相應行之。
The notion of an active man constructing a representation of the world and acting accordingly is a mayor contemporary theme.

此一假定說法之哲學起源可以追溯到Heraclitus(赫拉克里特斯: 所有事物都是流動的)。

Stephen Pepper

Stephen Pepper 1) 的各種世界假說 (World Hypotheses, 1942)

  • root metaphors / 基本象徵: The basic term of Stephen Pepper's philosophy is “root metaphor,” which is the cognitive foundation of the various relatively adequate systems of thought, the world hypotheses. / Stephen Pepper 哲學的基本詞彙是「基本象徵」,此為各種相關思想系統的認知基礎,即其個別的世界假說。
  • 四種基本象徵:
    • formism (形式論)根據理型的形式,從相似性與差異性對世界作出區分;如柏拉圖(Platonic)哲學
    • mechanism (功能論) 透過比較認識世界,如自然神明論(deism)與經驗論(empiricism)
    • organicism (有機論) 認為世界種種是像生物成長一樣,如19th 浪漫主義者
    • contextualism (脈絡論) 認為要透過理解相關事件的錯綜網路才能了解世界。

Piaget's adaptational modes

Piaget maintains that the concept of biological and intellectual adaptation logically necessitates a notion of organization. This is on this basis that he posites the existence of two functional invariants, adaptation and organization. (Nystrand, 1977: 6)

* Schema / 基模 : 組織的基礎單位

  • adaptation processes / 適應程序:
    • assimilation (同化): the process by which an organism integrates aspects of the environment into already existing physical or cognitive structures.
    • accommodation (調適): the process by which an organism adapts by altering its own physical or mental structures.
He notes that while infant development is characteried by the progressive assimilation of and accommodation to relatively simple behavioral patterns, adolescence is characterized by the development of the schemata of formal operational thought. / 他注意到雖然幼兒發展是由對相關的單純行為樣式進行同化與調適所行程的,而青春期少年是由規範性的操作思想發展所構成的。(Nystrand, 1977: 6)

Kelly's personal construct

George Kelly 的個人建構是關於個性的發展。即,Piaget 處理的主要是對有形現實的適應,而 Kelly 處理的是個人現實概念的發展。(Piaget deals primarily with adpatation to physical reality, while Kelly deals with the development of a notion of personal reality. – Nystrand, M., 1977:7)

  • Piaget 與 Kelly 理論類似之處:
    • 個體根據自己的活動組織其現實的概念:personal construct vs. schema
    • unit of experience vs. adaptation

personal construct

Kelly 視 “everyman” 都像是個科學家。其的組織單位是個人構念(personal construct),定義為:一種雙極(bipolar)組織結構或個體「創造並嘗試符合組成世界的現實」的「樣板(template)」。 (Nystrand, M. 1977:7)

Bannister 與 Fransella 認為 Kelly 的建構理論認為人是:

a categorizing animal. All perception involves categorizing. If you see something you have never seen before you will already have categorized it as “something I have never seen before.” At birth (and before) stimuli are categorized in the sense that the nervous system deals differently with light and sound stimuli, and so no. At the other extreme, in complex social behaviors, categorizing is very evident. A person reacts to others depending on how he has categorized them. Probably the most general dichotomous social category is “Us versus Them.” [1971, p. 7] / (人是)一種分類動物。所有感覺都與分類有關。如果你看到一種之前沒有看過的東西,你已經把它分類成為「之前沒有看過的東西」了。人一出生時神經系統就把刺激區分為光與聲音,與其他。另一個極端的例子,再一個複雜的社會行為中,分類行為也是非常明顯的。人會根據他對對象的分類來決定如何反應。也許最普遍的二元社會分類是「我們對他們」。

unit of experience

unit of experience: a cycle embracing five phases: anticipation(預期), investment(投入), encounter(遭遇), confirmation(證明) or disconfirmation(證非), and constructive revision(建構性的改版). (Kelly, 1870:18)

Other resources

  • Understanding George Kelly and Personal Construct Theory which Underlies Repertory Grid

http://www.enquirewithin.co.nz/HINTS/skills2.htm

Kuhn's Paradigm

Thomas Kuhn 的科學發展理論與 Piaget 對認知發展的分析,以及 Kelly 對人格發展的分析相近。Kuhn 的組織單位是 paradigm (範式),一種集結在學科中被普遍接受,但是並不顯現的建構性與整體集合。

paradigm's adaptation process:

  • establishment of paradigm / 建立範式
  • articulation of the paradigm / 釐清範式
  • experimentation guided by the paradigm / 範式實驗指引
  • confirmation of the paradigm's predictions or disconfirmation / 證實或否定範式的預測
  • constructive revision or paradigm replacement / 建構性的改版或範式替代

總結

sum up three theories

following questions

  • how we contextualize or structure knowledge? Jerome Bruner(Jerome Bruner) 4) (社會學習理論/布魯納) begins by suggesting his metaphor of right and left hands.
    Citation: Bruner, J.(1962). Left and right hands. in On knowling: Essays ofr the left hand. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
    Bruner 描述某些科學研究的起點是來自於研究者「左腦」的預感,再轉由「右腦」檢驗這些假說。
  • Ornstein: examines the two modes of consciousess, or ways of knowing. He discusses some implications for science and has some ancillary comments about the writing process. He suggest in a tentative manner the many-faceted dimensions of these two modes of consciousness. 研究兩種意識模式、或稱為兩種認知方法。
  • Michael Polanyi: Personal knowledge. He analyses different levels of learning and distinguishes between “irreversible heuristic acts(不可逆的啟發行動)” and “reversible routime performances(可逆的例行表現)”. 參閱[中文版]個人知識: 邁向後批判哲學. 第五章: 言述. 第二節: 非言述智力. 台北: 商周出版社.
    • 學習的第一個階段是啟發性(heuristic)行動,第二個階段是帶有常規性(routine)的特性。(p.76)
      • 竅門學習:啟發性行動是開創性的,常規性行動是重複此一竅門
      • 信號學習:啟發性行動是觀察性的,常規性行動是持續相同信號的反應
      • 潛在學習:啟發性行動是理解性的,常規性行動是解決一個常規問題
      • 創新的實現能力是不可逆的,固定知式架構的操作是可逆的。
  • 總結本段是Kuhn的兩篇文章,描述科學發展的兩種狀態:常規科學(normal science)為科學性探索期,革命性科學(revolutionary science)為科學性發現期。
    • Nystrand 認為Kuhn的兩種科學狀態與Bruner、Ornstein所建議的兩種意識。
Kuhndiscovery 發現 revolutionary scicence 科學革命exploration 探索 normal science 常規科學
Bruner left hand 左手 right hand 右手
Polanyi heuristic 啟發 routine 常規
Piaget accommodatory 調適 assimliatory 同化
Ornstein