Human-information interaction research and development / Marchionini(2008)
Citation - Marchionini, G. (2008). Human-information interaction research and development. Library & Information Science Research, 30(3), 165-174.
Keyword - HII,
note: 為 i-school 的奠基之作，或也同時是夫子自道
This article argues that the past 30 years have seen a shift from distinct emphases on information, individual people, and specific technologies to emphases on the interactions among more diverse forms and amounts of information, people, and technologies.
Human–information interaction shifts the foci of all aspects of information work; blurs boundaries between information objects, technology, and people; and creates new forms of information.
This article discusses changes in each of these components of information and trends and challenges surrounding the study of their interactions are presented.
Historical review of information field
“This article reflects on how information research has shifted from emphases on discrete elements of information toward an ecological account of human-information interaction.”
“The three classical elements of the information field have been information objects (e.g., books, articles, and other phsical records); human who create, manage, and use the objects to form mental represntations; and the technologies that capture, store, transmit, and manage information objects.”
“In the second half of the twentieth century, researchers shifted away from studying the acquisition, organization, and management of collections of information objects. Instead, the began emphasizing human and the technological elements independently, as well as considering their relationships to communication and information transfer. ”
“In the late 1970s, scholars looking toward the last decades of the twentieth century posed research agendas that were more human-centered. The field became more user-oriented, albeit through the lens of technical changes in how people create and access information objects. ”
Wellisch (1972) 考據資訊領域詞彙的歷史，從19世紀晚期的圖書館經濟學(library economy)到20世紀前半的文獻學，到二戰後的資訊科學。他指出「資訊科學」一詞有很多缺陷，應該使用「資訊學(informatics)」。今日，在學院中「資訊」一詞在教學與研究中的使用遠比資訊科學更廣泛。資訊領域已經從管理已存的物件，到各種人類智慧活動的發生、傳佈、管理、利用、再利用與保存。以及那些受委託的機器。
“Wellisch (1972) traced the terminological history of the information field from library economy in the late 19th century to documentation through the first half of the 20th century and to information science in post-World War II period. He pointed out the many flaws of the term information science and suggested using the term informatics. Today, the term information alone is used in the name of some schools with faculty who engage in research and teaching about a much broader notion than even the general term information science. The field has moved from managing extant objects to considering the genesis, distribution, management, use, reuse, and preservation of all aspects of human intellectual effort, including those delegated to machines.”
the information field is evolving in several ways:
from focus on stable artifacts to grappling with how people and machines interact with dynamic, morphing information objects.
from focus on individual information seekers and managers as rational cognitive actors to considering embodied minds in a cyber collective.
from issues of physical object management to issues of scale, layering, and boundary blurs. • 由資訊管理，到以個人資料、過濾、個人健康紀錄為例的身份管理。
from information management to identity management as instantiated in user profiles, filters (e.g., spam), and personal health records.
classical information-centric view of the information field.Objects (e.g., documents, books, and films) are in the center; people create and access these objects through various technologies.
持互動中心觀點的資訊研究，在技術基質(technological substrate, 如虛擬空間)中的互動流，同時影響了人們與資訊物件。這種互動中創造了新的資訊物件(logs, system states)與所有的元素，包含了資訊物件與逐步形成的虛擬空間。需要具有一種能觀照環境中所有元素互動的生態學取向，才能在這種環境中研究與發展。
interaction-centric view of information; people (as individuals and often as groups) and streams of active objects interact in a technological substrate (cyberspace, represented by the cloud) that itself affects the people and objects. The interactions create new objects (logs, system states) and all elements, including the objects and cyberspace evolve over time. Research and development in such an environment requires an ecological approach that attends to mutual interactions among all elements of the environment.
物件與內容 Objects and content
- ILS 只研究資訊物件的組織問題：如何能最有效率的儲存、保存與取用資訊物件，作為為來取用之用。
This diversity in forms of expression is abundantly evident today in the variety of electronic media used in all aspects of human existence.
the large amount of information that is manifested digitally Digital representations are easy and inexpensive to copy without loss, and they transfer on massive scales easily. Thesewell-known properties of digital artifacts have driven the digitization of existing forms of human expression, as well as the movement toward creating newexpressions in digital form (born digital).
資訊科學受到20世紀中期，認知心理學的資訊處理模式的影響最大。此理論受到模控學理論、數位計算機、Noam Chomsky語言學理論的啟發。認知的資訊處理模式的最佳典範是George Miller, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon。他們提出受到有限處理資源限制的線性資訊流思考理論。
For information science, the most influential psychological theory of the mid-twentieth century was the information-processing model of cognition. This theory was inspired by the cybernetic theories of Ross Ashby and Norbert Wiener, the development of analog and digital computing devices, and the linguistic theory of Noam Chomsky. The information-processing model of cognition was best articulated in the works of George Miller, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon. They posited theories of thinking dependent on linear information flows that were strongly constrained by limited processing resources.
同時，電腦科學與心理學採納了認知資訊處理模型，並發展出新的領域：HCI 人機互動。此領域包含了對簡單人類行為的預測模型….。HCI 的使用者中心設計方法(user-centered design methods)與使用性研究評估技術，很快的被資訊科學家所採納，用來了解資訊尋求行為，與發展更好的資訊系統。在20世紀最後關門的十年，許多資訊課程都納入了HCI作為資訊專業訓練的一部分。
In parallel, the fields of computer science and psychology adopted the information-processing model of cognition and developed a new field known as human–computer interaction (HCI). The field included predictive models of simple human behaviors, such as perfect text editing (Card, Moran, & Newell, 1983). HCI user-centered design methods and usability study evaluation techniques were quickly adopted by information scientists, who aimed to understand information seeking and develop better information systems. By the closing decades of the 20th century, most information programs had HCI into their training programs for information professionals.
Marchionini (2006) 主張結合 HCI 與 IR 研究，成為 HCIR。
心理學由資訊處理歷程模型，轉向社會認知(Vygotsky)、認知與環境的互動(Clark, 1997)、與身心的互動(Johnson, 1987, 2007)
提到技術對社會、對資訊環境的影響。以及各種進一步應用的研究（如，為了降低資訊過載的information visualization, filtering的研究, etc.）。
humans information (objects) interaction
In the case of human–information interaction, humans and information are the entities. Actions are mental and physical; interaction may be initiated by humans or information objects. The intensity of a specific cycle can be small (incremental) or large (epiphanies, deletions) and the frequencies slow or rapid and regular or chaotic. The changes are differences in mental states of the human and physical or digital states of information objects. Although all these characteristics of interaction are important, high-interaction experiences are typically determined by high reciprocity rates.
- This study considers what it means to interact with information rather than another human or a computer.
This fluid model of information interaction in the head also serves as a model for the collective state of cyberspace: Linkages are strong or weak over time so that search result sets, Wikipedia articles, and personal propensities to respond to stimuli exist in different phases of stability. Whether considering this interaction of information in the brain/mind as a kind of synaptic flow of ionic activations or taking a more spiritual view of the mind/soul, the notion that mental information is interactive obtains.
“In the case of information as mental state, human interactions are internal. The mental state of an individual at any instant in time is defined by a network of activated connections among neuronal cells in the brain. These networks are concepts, impressions, and active memories. Their evolutions over time are called thought. These networks can also be called noumenal clouds because they are constantly shifting and evolving. Information as mental state is thus a set of noumenal clouds at some point in time. Interactions are the strengthened or dampened firings of synapses that shift the cloud patterns over time. Adding more energy to one cloud (concept) may dampen, merge, or dissipate other clouds. External stimuli reach synaptic junctions to alter the shape and energy of these noumenal clouds as another kind of interaction with the external world. Because humans control their higher-level mental activity, they control the interaction of information by mulling over ideas and impressions and admitting external signals that change their mental state. Repetitive cloud patterns create familiar (memorable) concepts or impressions, although each re-instantiation is a unique neural pattern. Highly familiar patterns are replicated quickly and with few differences, whereas less familiar or complex patterns are less similar over time. This fluid model of information interaction in the head also serves as a model for the collective state of cyberspace: Linkages are strong or weak over time so that search result sets, Wikipedia articles, and personal propensities to respond to stimuli exist in different phases of stability. Whether considering this interaction of information in the brain/mind as a kind of synaptic flow of ionic activations or taking a more spiritual view of the mind/soul, the notion that mental information is interactive obtains.” (p.170)