Human-information interaction research and development / Marchionini(2008)

Citation - Marchionini, G. (2008). Human-information interaction research and development. Library & Information Science Research, 30(3), 165-174.

Keyword - HII,

note: 為 i-school 的奠基之作,或也同時是夫子自道

Abstract

This article argues that the past 30 years have seen a shift from distinct emphases on information, individual people, and specific technologies to emphases on the interactions among more diverse forms and amounts of information, people, and technologies.

Human–information interaction shifts the foci of all aspects of information work; blurs boundaries between information objects, technology, and people; and creates new forms of information.

This article discusses changes in each of these components of information and trends and challenges surrounding the study of their interactions are presented.

Historical review of information field

此文的開頭,為資訊科學研究領域(information field),做了一個歷史性的回顧或簡述:

“This article reflects on how information research has shifted from emphases on discrete elements of information toward an ecological account of human-information interaction.”

在資訊研究中有三個主要的元素: 資訊物件(如,書、文章、其他紀錄實體);建立、管理與利用這些資訊物件以形成心智表徵的人;與捕捉、儲存、管理這些資訊物件的技術。
“The three classical elements of the information field have been information objects (e.g., books, articles, and other phsical records); human who create, manage, and use the objects to form mental represntations; and the technologies that capture, store, transmit, and manage information objects.”

在二十世紀後半,研究主題由資訊物件的獲取、組織與管理,轉向個別強調人、資訊技術、與資訊傳播轉移的關係。
“In the second half of the twentieth century, researchers shifted away from studying the acquisition, organization, and management of collections of information objects. Instead, the began emphasizing human and the technological elements independently, as well as considering their relationships to communication and information transfer. ”

從1970年代後期到二十世紀最後十年,學者們的研究更關注在人本身。學科更加的使用者導向,儘管仍透過技術變革的眼光來審視人們如何建立與取用資訊物件。
“In the late 1970s, scholars looking toward the last decades of the twentieth century posed research agendas that were more human-centered. The field became more user-oriented, albeit through the lens of technical changes in how people create and access information objects. ”

Wellisch (1972) 考據資訊領域詞彙的歷史,從19世紀晚期的圖書館經濟學(library economy)到20世紀前半的文獻學,到二戰後的資訊科學。他指出「資訊科學」一詞有很多缺陷,應該使用「資訊學(informatics)」。今日,在學院中「資訊」一詞在教學與研究中的使用遠比資訊科學更廣泛。資訊領域已經從管理已存的物件,到各種人類智慧活動的發生、傳佈、管理、利用、再利用與保存。以及那些受委託的機器。
“Wellisch (1972) traced the terminological history of the information field from library economy in the late 19th century to documentation through the first half of the 20th century and to information science in post-World War II period. He pointed out the many flaws of the term information science and suggested using the term informatics. Today, the term information alone is used in the name of some schools with faculty who engage in research and teaching about a much broader notion than even the general term information science. The field has moved from managing extant objects to considering the genesis, distribution, management, use, reuse, and preservation of all aspects of human intellectual effort, including those delegated to machines.”

資訊領域的擴張可由幾方面來說
the information field is evolving in several ways:

  • 由著重在靜態物件,到捕捉到人如何與機器以動態、變形的資訊物件互動。
    from focus on stable artifacts to grappling with how people and machines interact with dynamic, morphing information objects.
  • 由著重在資訊搜尋的個體、理性認知行動的管理者,到虛擬協同中的具現心靈。
    from focus on individual information seekers and managers as rational cognitive actors to considering embodied minds in a cyber collective.

• 由實體物件管理的議題,到規模、分層與領域模糊的議題。
from issues of physical object management to issues of scale, layering, and boundary blurs. • 由資訊管理,到以個人資料、過濾、個人健康紀錄為例的身份管理。
from information management to identity management as instantiated in user profiles, filters (e.g., spam), and personal health records.

傳統上,持資訊中心觀點的資訊領域,認為資訊物件(如書、文件)是研究的中心,人類透過各種技術創造或使用這些物件。
classical information-centric view of the information field.Objects (e.g., documents, books, and films) are in the center; people create and access these objects through various technologies.

持互動中心觀點的資訊研究,在技術基質(technological substrate, 如虛擬空間)中的互動流,同時影響了人們與資訊物件。這種互動中創造了新的資訊物件(logs, system states)與所有的元素,包含了資訊物件與逐步形成的虛擬空間。需要具有一種能觀照環境中所有元素互動的生態學取向,才能在這種環境中研究與發展。
interaction-centric view of information; people (as individuals and often as groups) and streams of active objects interact in a technological substrate (cyberspace, represented by the cloud) that itself affects the people and objects. The interactions create new objects (logs, system states) and all elements, including the objects and cyberspace evolve over time. Research and development in such an environment requires an ecological approach that attends to mutual interactions among all elements of the environment.

物件與內容 Objects and content

傳統上,

  • 概念的發生與表徵,留給認識論
  • 組織或機械規則建立的研究,留給管理學與軟體工程
  • 個別物件與系統產生的物件,則留給個別學術領域、出版學、或電腦科學。
  • ILS 只研究資訊物件的組織問題:如何能最有效率的儲存、保存與取用資訊物件,作為為來取用之用。

資訊物件本質的變革

  • 表徵形式的多樣
    This diversity in forms of expression is abundantly evident today in the variety of electronic media used in all aspects of human existence.
  • 數位內容的傳遞與複製,便利、成本低廉且不失真

the large amount of information that is manifested digitally Digital representations are easy and inexpensive to copy without loss, and they transfer on massive scales easily. Thesewell-known properties of digital artifacts have driven the digitization of existing forms of human expression, as well as the movement toward creating newexpressions in digital form (born digital).

資訊科學受到20世紀中期,認知心理學的資訊處理模式的影響最大。此理論受到模控學理論、數位計算機、Noam Chomsky語言學理論的啟發。認知的資訊處理模式的最佳典範是George Miller, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon。他們提出受到有限處理資源限制的線性資訊流思考理論。
For information science, the most influential psychological theory of the mid-twentieth century was the information-processing model of cognition. This theory was inspired by the cybernetic theories of Ross Ashby and Norbert Wiener, the development of analog and digital computing devices, and the linguistic theory of Noam Chomsky. The information-processing model of cognition was best articulated in the works of George Miller, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon. They posited theories of thinking dependent on linear information flows that were strongly constrained by limited processing resources.

同時,電腦科學與心理學採納了認知資訊處理模型,並發展出新的領域:HCI 人機互動。此領域包含了對簡單人類行為的預測模型….。HCI 的使用者中心設計方法(user-centered design methods)與使用性研究評估技術,很快的被資訊科學家所採納,用來了解資訊尋求行為,與發展更好的資訊系統。在20世紀最後關門的十年,許多資訊課程都納入了HCI作為資訊專業訓練的一部分。
In parallel, the fields of computer science and psychology adopted the information-processing model of cognition and developed a new field known as human–computer interaction (HCI). The field included predictive models of simple human behaviors, such as perfect text editing (Card, Moran, & Newell, 1983). HCI user-centered design methods and usability study evaluation techniques were quickly adopted by information scientists, who aimed to understand information seeking and develop better information systems. By the closing decades of the 20th century, most information programs had HCI into their training programs for information professionals.

IR的研究重新關注到人身上,將資訊尋求視為一種人類的問題解決歷程(problem-solving process)。

Marchionini (2006) 主張結合 HCI 與 IR 研究,成為 HCIR。

心理學由資訊處理歷程模型,轉向社會認知(Vygotsky)、認知與環境的互動(Clark, 1997)、與身心的互動(Johnson, 1987, 2007)

Technology

提到技術對社會、對資訊環境的影響。以及各種進一步應用的研究(如,為了降低資訊過載的information visualization, filtering的研究, etc.)。

Human–information interaction

humans information (objects) interaction

就人資互動來說,人與資訊是互動的兩個實體。
In the case of human–information interaction, humans and information are the entities. Actions are mental and physical; interaction may be initiated by humans or information objects. The intensity of a specific cycle can be small (incremental) or large (epiphanies, deletions) and the frequencies slow or rapid and regular or chaotic. The changes are differences in mental states of the human and physical or digital states of information objects. Although all these characteristics of interaction are important, high-interaction experiences are typically determined by high reciprocity rates.

與 HCI的不同:

  • This study considers what it means to interact with information rather than another human or a computer.

腦神經科學的發現:思考、概念與記憶來自於腦神經網絡的模式。而資訊網絡上的狀況亦同。
This fluid model of information interaction in the head also serves as a model for the collective state of cyberspace: Linkages are strong or weak over time so that search result sets, Wikipedia articles, and personal propensities to respond to stimuli exist in different phases of stability. Whether considering this interaction of information in the brain/mind as a kind of synaptic flow of ionic activations or taking a more spiritual view of the mind/soul, the notion that mental information is interactive obtains.

這一段很有趣。

當我們把心智狀態視為資訊,人的互動是內在的。個人的心智狀態是由當時活躍的腦神經連結網絡所定義的。這些網絡是概念、印象、與記憶,其演變我們稱為思想(thought)。這些網絡也能被稱為本體雲(noumenal clouds),因為它們不斷的變動與演化。因此,作為心智狀態的資訊,有時就是一組本體雲。互動是增強或減弱突觸的作用,使本體雲的樣式轉移。針對一個雲(概念)再增加更多的能量,使其進一步減弱、合併、或打散其他的雲。接觸到突觸連結的外部刺激

“In the case of information as mental state, human interactions are internal. The mental state of an individual at any instant in time is defined by a network of activated connections among neuronal cells in the brain. These networks are concepts, impressions, and active memories. Their evolutions over time are called thought. These networks can also be called noumenal clouds because they are constantly shifting and evolving. Information as mental state is thus a set of noumenal clouds at some point in time. Interactions are the strengthened or dampened firings of synapses that shift the cloud patterns over time. Adding more energy to one cloud (concept) may dampen, merge, or dissipate other clouds. External stimuli reach synaptic junctions to alter the shape and energy of these noumenal clouds as another kind of interaction with the external world. Because humans control their higher-level mental activity, they control the interaction of information by mulling over ideas and impressions and admitting external signals that change their mental state. Repetitive cloud patterns create familiar (memorable) concepts or impressions, although each re-instantiation is a unique neural pattern. Highly familiar patterns are replicated quickly and with few differences, whereas less familiar or complex patterns are less similar over time. This fluid model of information interaction in the head also serves as a model for the collective state of cyberspace: Linkages are strong or weak over time so that search result sets, Wikipedia articles, and personal propensities to respond to stimuli exist in different phases of stability. Whether considering this interaction of information in the brain/mind as a kind of synaptic flow of ionic activations or taking a more spiritual view of the mind/soul, the notion that mental information is interactive obtains.” (p.170)

Note