Stereotypes and social cognition / Leyens, Yzerbyt & Schadron (1994)

Citation - Leyens, J.-P., Yzerbyt, V., & Schadron, G. (1994). Stereotypes and social cognition. London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Keyword - stereotype, social cognition, social identity

Introduction

“'If I differ from you, far from wronging you, I enhance you', wrote Saint-Exupéry in Lettre à un otage (1944) (Letter to a Hostage). We thoroughly concur with Saint-Exupéry's statement. We would agree even more had he written: 'If you differ from me, far from wronging me,you enhance me.' In contrast to this praise of difference, we could also add one for similarity, because we feel enhanced if others are like us and we like them. Indeed, sociability accords with an equilibrium between differences and similarities. ” (p.1) 「若我與你不同,那也無損於你,而是我擴大了你」,聖-埃克絮佩里(Saint-Exupéry, 小王子作者)在他的「Lettre à un otage (1944) (寫給人質的信)」寫到。我們完全同意聖-埃克的說法。我們也更同意這樣的說法,「若你與我不同,那也無損於我,因為你擴大了我」。相對於這類對差異的讚美,我們也能對相似讚美,因為我們也會因為他人與我相像而得到增強。事實上,社交來自於在差異與相似中的均衡。

* 因為看重個人價值,西方文化較喜歡差異,甚於相似性。這種現象解釋「典型(stereotype)」在西方被認為是不好的(刻板印象)。(p.1)

  • 典型=類型化,是人類生活所需
  • 社會心理學家的研究興趣
    • 對他人的類型化、判斷行為的正確與錯誤
    • 印象的形成過程與原因要素(Asch, 1946; Heider, 1958)
    • 在社會心理學中的 Stereotype 研究:
      • 正確性: considered errors, abusive generalizations
      • 社會身份與社會認知: social identity & social cognition
  • 作者的立場: 實用主義與語用學
    • 社會認知是一種解釋他人的行動
    • 典型(stereotype)是關於人性的共享信念,是人格特徵也是群體的行為。(stereotypes are shared beliefs about person attributes, usually personality traits but often also behaviours of a group of people.)(p.3)
    • 歸類是彈性的
    • 人類選擇類別是語用取向的,情境的,
Therefore, the point of view that we adopt in this book is not that people are good or poor perceivers. Neither do we defend that people are rational or irrational when they form an impression of others, and logical or illogical when they attribute a cause to a given behaviour. Our perspective is a pragmatic one. What is pragmatic is often considered useful, and person perception is useful fer interacting with others, Assuredly, we adhere to this view of pragmatism. We do not stop there however; for us, social perception is action. This is where pragmatism joins pragmatics. As much as thinking is for doing, doing is for thinking. This is not some kind of activist and anti-intellectual stand. The French philosopher Blondel uses an illuminating metaphor to convince his readers that knowledge precedes, accompanies, and follows action. He writes that 'so in a wheel that moves forward by turning, the spokes at times precede, at times dominate, at times follow, at times are level with the axle; some go back to the rear while the others go to the head' (1902/1962, p. 1250). (p.3)

Content

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