Introduction to action research (2ed) / Greenwood & Levin (2007)

Citation - Greenwood, D. J., & Levin, M. (2007). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change (2 ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Keyword - action research

Define

行動研究是一種由專業行動研究者與組織、社群、網絡成員,為了改善參與者的現況,所共同完成的社會研究。行動研究擴大在研究過程中的參與,並協助相關人士建立可持續的、令人滿意的結果。

Action research is social research carried out by a team that encompasses a professional action researcher and the members of an organization, community, or network (“stakeholders”) who are seeking to improve the participants' situation. AR promotes broad participation in the research process and supports action leading to a more just, sustainable, or satisfying situation for the stakeholders. (p.1)

共同參與:研究者與關係人要共同定義需解決的問題、建立相關知識、學習並執行社會研究、行動、詮釋行動結果。行動研究憑藉的信念與經驗是:所有人(包括專業行動研究者在內)都在日常生活中不斷地累積、組織、使用複雜的知識。在行動研究計畫中,此一信念隨處可見。因為專業行動研究者與社群的第一步就是定義他們想要解決的問題。他們由匯集彼此的知識開始。行動研究民主化專業研究者與地方旨趣團體的關係。

Together, the professional researcher and the stakeholders define the problems to be examined, co-generate relevant knowledge about them, learn and execute social research techniques, take actions, and interpret the results of actions based on what they have learned. AR rests on the belief and experience that all people – professional action researchers included – accumulate, organize, and use complex knowledge continuously in everyday life. This belief is visible in any AR project because the first step professional action researchers and members of a community, organization, or network take is to define a problem that they seek to resolve. They begin by pooling their knowledge. AR democratizes the relationship between the professional researcher and the local interested parties. (p.1-2)

批判的社會行動:由於行動研究涉及改變社會,因此通常會批判傳統學術與社會問題只想研究的出世態度。但行動研究者並未否定正式研究方法與嚴格的有效科學知識,相反地,由於研究結果會直接影響相關人士的生活,因此行動研究者對知識的有效性具有更高度的興趣。

Because it is a research practice with a social change agenda, AR involves a critique of conventional academic practices and organizations that assert either the necessity or desirability of studying social problems without trying to resolve them. Although AR views academic and professional knowledge systems that do not engage practice direction as wrongheaded, action researchers neither reject formal research methods nor ignore the epistemological issues that necessarily undergird the development of valid social knowledge. To the contrary, action researchers, precisely because the results will affect the lives of the stakeholders, have a profound interest in the validity of the generated knowledge. (p.4)

History

以往行動研究者很少認識彼此,研究者也沒有形成一個緊密的社群。一直到 Reason & Bradbury (2001) the Handbook of Action Research, 將各種不同觀點的行動研究匯集到一本書中,才對近來的發展形成更一致的觀點。(p.13)

作者將行動研究進行的歷史區分為三階段:

  • 北方的產業民主研究(industrial democracy)
  • 南方的參與行動研究 (PAR, participatory action research)
  • 合作探究 human inquiry/collaborative inquiry

Epistemology, Scientific Knowledge

行動研究實務 Varieties of action research praxis

  • Pragmatic action research [實用行動研究]
  • Power & social reform: Southern PAR, Education, Feminism, AR [權力與社會改革:南方參與行動研究、教育、女性主義與行動研究]
  • Educational action research [針對教育的行動研究]
  • Participatory evaluation [參與式評估]
  • Participatory rural appraisal, Rapid rural appraisal, Participatory learning & analysis [參與式農村評估、急速農村評估、參與式學習與分析]
  • Varieties of human inquiry: Collaborative, Action, Self-reflective, & Cooperative. [各種人文學科探究:協作、行動、反思、合作]
  • Action science & Organizational learning [行動科學、組織學習]

Note

file link - Google Schloar, XXC