Supporting the social uses of television: sociability heuristics for social TV / Geerts & Grooff (2009)

Citation - Geerts, D., & Grooff, D. D. (2009). Supporting the social uses of television: sociability heuristics for social tv. Paper presented at the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, Boston, MA, USA.

Keyword - interactive TV

Abstract

基於數項社會電視的使用者研究,作者提出12項「社會性」的設計訣竅,作為後續系統與軟體設計的評估參考。

Various social television systems and applications, enabling remote communication and interaction between viewers, are currently in development. Although usability guidelines exist for interactive television to ensure a usable system, there are no sociability guidelines for designing or evaluating the social interaction these systems enable. In this paper we present twelve sociability heuristics for evaluating social TV, based on several user studies with social TV systems.

  • 背景/動機:
  • 假定:
  • 方法:
  • 資料:
  • 發現:

Content

TV的使用性規範

  • 電視與電腦的不同:電視是一種「躺著看」的媒體,要的是輕鬆的導覽介面,而不是追求(生產力上的)效益與效率的介面。Television is e.g. a lean-back medium, requiring relaxed navigation rather than efficiency and effectiveness,
  • 在不同情境下,人們對電視機有不同的注意力水準 people pay attention to the TV set in varying levels, according to the situation [3,13].
  • 既有的互動電視使用性規範 interactive TV system usability guidelines[3, 14]

「可社會性」的學術研究基礎

The term ‘sociability’ is used to indicate these interface aspects that support and enhance social interaction with and through new technologies and applications [20].

Computer Mediated Communication(CMC) Computer Supported Cooperative Work(CSCW) online communities [20] groupware [8].

建立檢核準則 create heuristics

(Heuristics 中文沒有普遍公定的正確譯法。意思上比較像「心訣」,指一種加快認知判斷的捷徑,兼有正面與負面的意涵。在使用性研究的領域中,在語用上很接近準則、標準或檢核表(guideline, criteria, checklist),或是藉此進行使用性評估的方法(heuristics evaluation)。而使用性隨著「使用經驗設計」領域的擴張,heuristic作為檢驗規範的用法也擴張到其他相關主題上;本文就是一例。)

  • 既有使用性檢核規範
    • 通用: [16, 22]
      • Nielsen: 最早是根據個人經驗所建立的檢查清單[16][17]。之後以七組不同檢核規範的內容進行因素分析,重新歸納為九種[18],後來又增加一種為十種[19]。
        [16] Molich, R. & Nielsen, J.. Improving a human-computer dialogue. Communications of the ACM, 33, 3, (1990) 338-348
        [17] Nielsen, J., and Molich, R. Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces. In Proc. CHI'90, ACM (1990), 249-256
        [18] Nielsen, J. Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics. In Proc. CHI 1994, ACM (1994), 152-158
        [19] Nielsen, J. Heuristic evaluation. In Nielsen, J., & Mack, R. L. (Eds.), Usability inspection methods. John Wiley & Sons (1994), 25-62
      • [22] Scapin, D.L. and Bastien, J.M.C. Ergonomic criteria for evaluating the ergonomic quality of interactive systems. In Behaviour & Information Technology, 6, 4-5 (1997), 220-231
    • 特定領域: Dykstra 在設計日曆軟體時,認為應該特定領域建立使用性檢核表,能同時掌握使用性專家與領域知識專家的原則。其建立方法有五個步驟(Note: 但我覺得就兩個步驟而已…..):(1)列舉每項專案每位受測者的使用性問題;(2)彙整問題;(3)歸納問題;(4)再歸納問題;(5)完成檢核表。The heuristic checklist was created in five steps: 1) listing each usability problem for each program and each participant; 2) pooling the problems per program; 3) grouping similar problems together and giving them at title; 4) eliminating duplicate problems and merging into fewer categories; and 5) developing the final checklist.
      [7] Dykstra, D. J. A Comparison of Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing: The Efficacy of a Domain-Specific Heuristic Checklist. Ph.D. diss., Department of Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, (1993)
  • 其他非使用性主題
    • 可玩性 playability [5]
    • 可社會性 sociability [8,20]

研究設計

  • 比較分析數種社會電視系統
  • 以「紮根理論」歸納原則
  • 選擇比較個案的原則: 1)透過在10呎距離遠的電視機螢幕觀賞, 2)同時在場能有很多人一起觀賞的, 3)也能與不在場的其他人同時互動。符合規則的有: AmigoTV, Messenger on Windows Media Center, Communication Services on Interactive Television (CoSe), Social TV and Ambulant Annotator.

結果

Note: 其實我覺得看起來比較像是規格需求書…

Function Heuristic
Communication modalities 提供不同等級(高度互動或少互動)的互動溝通管道
Offer different channels and levels for communicating freely
Presence and awareness 能知道誰能夠溝通
Use awareness tools for communicating availability
Synchronous versus asynchronous use 可進行同時或非同時的互動
Allow both synchronous and asynchronous use
Remote versus collocated interaction 可進行在場或不在場的互動
Support remote as well as collocated interaction
Information about viewing behavior 利用觀看行為資訊
Exploit viewing behavior for informing and engaging other viewers
User control 使用者對系統設定與作用有適當的設定權限
Give the user appropriate control over actions and system settings
Personal and group privacy 確保個人與團體隱私
Guarantee both personal privacy and group privacy
Distraction 減少看電視的分心
Minimize distraction from the television program
Notifications about activities 通知使用者事件與狀態
Notify the user of incoming events and situation changes
Program genres 適應適當的電視節目類型
Adapt to appropriate television program genres
Sharing content 使用者能彈性的分享內容
Let users share content flexibly
Sharing activities 鼓勵分享活動
Sharing activities

Note

作者主張「互動電視研究可以擺脫1990年代以來失敗實驗的稱號」的說法,像是圖書館學者覺得 Google 代表資訊搜尋研究是有用的一樣(若有貢獻,是Google走了跟以往LIS學者不走的路子。)。

In recent years, many interactive systems for use on television as well as web applications with TV content have been successfully introduced. This so-called “interactive television” is no longer perceived as a failed experiment as it was in the late nineties [12].

—- Lull一派的課題是探索「電視的社會性」,互動電視一派的課題是創造「社會性的電視」。

互動電視學派的主張,其實與 Lull(1980)的電視社會性是不相容的。 Lull 認為電視收視本質上就有社會性存在,電視機也就有其社會功能,因此研究者的工作是把這個社會性重新揭露出來,是社會學、人類學的取向,學術的本質是探索與發現。本文中 Geerts 所代表是互動電視一派的想法,認為非得在傳統電視之外加上什麼功能、設備的,才稱得上具有「社會性」,是工程、設計學的取向,學術本質是創造與發明。也因此才會需要有「Sociability」這樣的規範性檢查表,作為一種價值的策略引導。

file link - Google Schloar, XXC