Towards an architectural document analysis / Francke (2009)

Citation - Francke, H. (2009). Towards an Architectural Document Analysis. Journal of Information Architecture, 1(1), 16-36.

Keyword - Information Architecture, Document Architecture

Abstract

本文主要探討:

  • 資訊架構(IA)與文件架構(DA)的定義與運用。
    The article contains an overview of how IA and DA have been used and defined.
  • 將文件當作一種「社會-科技產物」的分析模型,能在理論與實務方面,更有效的區分資訊架構分析與文件架構分析。
    The article shows how a model for analysing documents as sociotechnical artefacts can fruitfully draw on parts of the theoretical and practical complexes of IA and DA.
    • IA(資訊架構分析)考慮的是組織系統、導覽、與命名。
      …. IA are organisation systems, navigation, and labelling.
    • DA(文件架構分析) 考慮的是邏輯架構、編排架構、內容架構、文件架構。
      From DA, logical structures, layout structures, content structures, and file structures are all applicable aspects.

「文字/文件即建築」 隱喻 的歷史

THE HISTORY OF THE “TEXT/DOCUMENT AS ARCHITECTURE” METAPHOR

  • Cowling(1998)1)
    • Plato, Gorgias (蘇格拉底對話錄, 高爾及亞篇): writer and builder alike handle “problems involving the ordering, framing, and fitting together of materials”. 羅馬修辭學。建構言語如同房屋。
    • 建築與傳統修辭所相通的步驟:
      • inventio (構思, invention)– gathering or constructing material
      • dispositio (佈局, disposition)– ordering it according to some form of structure (which may be a hierarchical arrangement)
      • ornatus (措辭風格, style)– decorating it in accordance with the intended style and audience.
  • 電腦相關領域對於建築隱喻的運用:
    • the metaphor has also come to be used in other noun phrases such as systems architecture, software architecture
    • Coplien & Devos (2000)2) for a discussion on similarities between the role of building architects and software architects.
    • Both in software architecture (Coplien, 1999, 41) 3) and in information architecture (Morrogh, 2003, 3)4), the analogy seems to focus more on the architects’ tasks and concerns than on the architecture of the artefact.
    • For a critique of the metaphor’s applicability in software architecture, see Baragry & Reed (2001).

資訊架構 information architecture

資訊架構: 定義

  • 通常是指製作大型網站的過程之一;或也可以是一種運用在大型網站建置以外的隱喻,例如企業資訊技術架構中的元件配置模型。
  • 雖然資訊架構工作可能涉及整合於不同學科領域的專家,如平面設計、圖書館資訊科學、新聞、使用性工程、行銷、人機互動、等等。但實務中,根據相關文獻,工作往往是集中於整合不同利害關係人(stakeholder)的專案經理(project manager)身上。
  • 資訊架構任務包含:
    • 資訊環境的設計與設計管理;
      “[i]nformation architecture is primarily about the design of information environments and the management of an information environment design process”(Morrogh, 20035), 6)
    • 複雜資訊環境的指引與尋路機制,讓使用者能在資訊空間中找到所需的資訊,一如在機場、車站這類不熟悉的大型建築物之中。即「資訊系統中的組織、命名、導覽架構」;類似傳統知識組織工具如目次、書後索引、詞彙表、控制詞彙、分類表等等。
      an aspect that has strong similarities to an area in architecture called “wayfinding”, which aims to facilitate people’s orientation in large, often unfamiliar buildings, such as airports (Van Dijck, 20036), 91; Muhlhausen7), 2006). This aspect of information architecture deals with “organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system” (Rosenfeld & Morville, 2002, 4; cf. Head, 2001). It has similarities to such knowledge organising tools as tables of contents and back-of-the-book indexes in print, but traditional knowledge organisation tools such as thesauri, controlled vocabulary, and classification are also used (Toms, 20028), 860).

資訊架構: 實務應用

  • Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville9): 對資訊架構最有引響力的書 網際網路資訊架構學。由於兩位作者都有圖書館與資訊科學的背景,他們強調資訊架構的知識組織面。討論了網站導覽系統的分類學的本質。
  • Andrew Large, Jamshid Beheshti, & Charles Cole (200210)): 提出“應用資訊架構學”(applied information architecture). 作者著重在資訊入口(portal)設計,歸納從介面設計到檢索的不同資訊架構取向。
  • Peter Van Dijck: 以設計師為中心,用更廣的角度討論資訊架構相關議題,但另一方面也將資訊架構更具體化為“組織基模(organization schemes)”, 類別(categories), 命名(labels),與網站地圖(sitemap)設計。(200311), ch. 3).

資訊架構分析

本節主要根據 Rosenfeld & Morville 所提出的資訊架構設計要素,

  • 組織系統
  • 瀏覽系統與搜尋系統
  • 命名系統

文件架構 Document Architecture

定義

  • 文件架構,在以往文獻中並沒有明確的被定義過。
  • 與文件架構相關的研究,機讀文件格式:
    • ISI Web of Science 的 COBATEF – the COntext-BAsed TExt Formatting system (Peels, Janssen & Nawijn, 1985)
    • Open Document Architecture, ODA (ISO 8613 1986)
    • Standard Generalized Markup Language, SGML (ISO 8879-1986)
    • Extensible Markup Language, XML.

分析

  • 邏輯結構 logical structures: 文件的層次結構,即:章、節、段落
  • 編排結構 layout structures: 呈現樣式
  • 內容結構 content structures: 語義結構
  • 檔案結構 file structures: 檔案關係的結構

Quotes

在資訊架構或文件架構的看法中,透過「建築」的隱喻,我們將「文件」理解為一種社會-技術的人造產物。
“The architecture metaphor provides a model for understanding and conceptualising documents as sociotechnical artefacts.”(p.16)

Note

前面的文獻探討還不錯。但最後結論的分析,把IA與DA直接對比沒有什麼道理。

1)
Cowling, D. (1998). Building the Text: Architecture as Metaphor in Late Medieval and Early Modern France. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
2)
Coplien, J. O., Devos, M. (2000). Architecture as Metaphor. Proceedings of the World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, Florida, July 2000. 737-742. <http://users.rcn.com/jcoplien/SCI2000Arch.html> [2005-05-23]
3)
Coplien, J. O. (1999). “Reevaluating the Architectural Metaphor: Toward Piecemeal Growth”. IEEE Software 16.5: 40-44.
4) , 5)
Morrogh, E. (2003). Information Architecture: An Emerging 21st Century Profession. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
6) , 11)
Van Dijck, P. (2003). Information Architecture for Designers: Structuring Websites for Business Success. Mies: RotoVision.
7)
Muhlhausen, J. (2006). “Wayfinding is not Signage.” SignWeb.com <http://signweb.com/index.php/channel/6/id/1433> [2008-03-07]
8)
Toms, E. G. (2002). Information Interaction: Providing a Framework for Information Architecture. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53.10: 855-862.
10)
Large, A., Beheshti, J., Cole, C. (2002). Information Architecture for the Web: The IA Matrix Approach to Designing Children’s Portals. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53.10: 831-838.