Hastily formed networks / Denning (2006)

Citation - Denning, P. J. (2006). Hastily formed networks. Communications of the ACM, 49(4), 15-20.

Keyword - Hastily formed networks

hastily formed network (HFN): 應急網絡

Abstract

Content

迅速地形成多重組織網絡,對於人道援助、災害救援、與重大緊急專案而言,是至關重要的能力。設計並落實網絡中的對話空間是核心挑戰。
The ability to form multi-organizational networks rapidly is crucial to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, and large urgent projects. Designing and implementing the network’s conversation space is the central challenge. (p.15)


We coined the term (HFN) at the Naval Postgraduate School in 2004. (p.16)


three HFN events

The idea of quickly forming a team for a particular, urgent task, and then disbanding it when done, is not new.

三種應急網絡所處理的事件:
three categories of events for which an HFN must respond

類別
Category
特性
Characteristics
範例
Examples
K:
Known
Know what to do
Us existing network structure
May choose not to response
緊急業務問題或機會的快速回應團隊
Fast response team for time-critical business problem or opportunity
KU:
Known
Unknown
Know what to do
Don't know time or place
Responding network structure known
區域火災、小型地震、市民暴動、軍事行動
Local fire, small earthquake, civil unrest, military campaigns
UU:
Unknown
Unknown
Don't know what to do
Don't know time or place
Responding network structure unknown
大型恐怖攻擊、大型地震、重大自然災害
9/11 attack, other terrorist attacks, large earthquake, major natural disasters (Note: KU events can become UU events when scaled up to large areas or populations)

第三類HFN所面對的挑戰主要有:
The main aspects of the third category challenge are:

  • 全然的意外:以往沒有遇過。缺乏訓練、裝備、與下一步的計畫。
    Genuine surprise. The precipitating event is in no known category. There has been no advance planning, training, or positioning of equipment.
  • 混亂:沒有人知道現況與該做些什麼。
    Chaos. Everyone is overwhelmed. No one understands the situation or knows what to do. People are frantic and panicky.
  • 資源缺乏:過大的災情導致缺乏足夠的資源與訓練。
    Totally insufficient resources. Available resources and training are overwhelmed by the magnitude of the event.
  • 多方回應:包含軍方、地方政府、民間組織、等多方機構需要合作。這些組織也許並沒有合作的道理,但「共同處於」重大災情迫使他們進行合作。
    Multi-agency response. Several agencies must cooperate in the response, including military, civilian government, and private organizations. These groups have had little or no prior reason to collaborate. The shock of moving from a state of “coexistence” to a state of “collaboration” can be overwhelming.
  • 分散回應:回應散佈於不同地區,分配資源與決策的權力也分散於許多不同的組織。指揮系統失效。
    Distributed response. The response is distributed over a geographical area into many local jurisdictions. The authority to allocate resources and reach decisions is distributed among many organizations. Decisions by command-and-control do not work.
  • 缺乏基礎建設:通訊、電力、水等重要基礎建設損毀或失效。需要趕快建立臨時基礎建設。
    Lack of infrastructure. Critical infrastructures such as communications, electricity, and water do not work. Makeshift infrastructures must be deployed quickly.

定義HFN

首要工作是建立溝通,才能匯集知識與對現況的解釋、了解有哪些資源可用、評估選項、計畫行動、決策、承諾、行動、協調配合。缺乏溝通,這些事情都不會發生。
The first priority after the precipitating event is for the responders to communicate. They want to pool their knowledge and interpretations of the situation, understand what resources are available, assess options, plan responses, decide, commit, act, and coordinate. Without communication, none of these things happens: the responders cannot respond. (p.16)

HFN 五要素(p.16):

  • 迅速建立的人際網絡
    a network of people established rapidly
  • 成員來自於不同社群
    from different communities,
  • 在一個共享的對話空間中一齊工作
    working together in a shared conversation space
  • 他們在對話空間中計畫,受命(commit to),並執行行動
    in which they plan, commit to, and execute actions,
  • 以完成大型、緊急的任務
    to fulfill a large, urgent mission.

HFN 不只是能運用先進網絡技術的組織,也要求以下能力(p.17):

  • 設置行動通訊與感測系統
    Setting up mobile communication and sensor systems;
  • 執行跨機構行動
    Conducting interagency operations, sometimes called “civil-military boundary”;
  • 協作行動計畫並協調執行
    Collaborating on action plans and coordinating their execution;
  • 改善
    Improvising;
  • 領導社會網絡,在社會網絡中的傳播與決策是去中心化的,並沒有一個階層式的指揮鍊或委派的領導人
    Leading a social network, where communication and decision making are decentralized, and there is no hierarchical chain of command or ex officio leader.

對話空間

網絡的核心是成員們使用的溝通系統,我們稱之為應急網絡的「對話空間」。
Thus the heart of the network is the communication system they use and the ways they interact within it. We call this the “conversation space” of the HFN.(p.16)


對話空間是形成社群並產生行動的傳播媒體空間。
The term conversation space was introduced for the medium in which all this takes place—from forming community responses to delivering actions.(p.17)

對話空間是(p.17):

  • 用來彼此溝通的媒介
    a medium of communication
  • 存在於一組成員之間
    among a set of players
  • 成員同意一組互動規則
    who have agreed on a set of interaction rules.

對話空間的要件:
Components of conversation space.

類別
Category
特性
Characteristics
範例
Examples
Physical systems 人們溝通、分享資訊與分配資源的媒體與機制
Media and mechanisms by which people communicate, share information, and allocate resources
電話、電力、道路、開會空間、物資補給、配送系統
Telephone, power, roads, meeting places, supplies, distribution systems
Players 成員,與其角色、核心能力、權力
Players included and their roles, core competencies, and authorities
市民、消防局、警察局、高速公路局、聯邦災難管理局
Citizens, fire department, policy department, highways department, federal emergency management agency
Interaction practices 成員間協調組織行動以完成目的的遊戲規則
Rules of the “game” followed by the players to organize their cooperation and achieve their outcomes
狀況覺察、分享資訊、計畫、決策、協調、統一指揮、權力、公共關係。
Situational awareness, sharing information, planning, reaching decisions, coordination, unified command and control, authority, public relations. (Note: environment has no common authorities, no hierarchy, many autonomous agents, decentralized communications)

文中舉了兩個建立對話空間的例子:911後的紐約市,與Hurricane Katrina 後的紐奧良 (New Orleans)。紐約成功的建立起對話空間,紐奧良則否。

紐約市在回應者與市民之間快速地建立的信任,但紐奧良的經驗是在建立信任時遭遇了困難。但這只是其中的一課:事件越大,越可能發生turf-asserting,並干擾網絡的效益。整個來說,HFN 的效能,取決於參與的民眾與組織在其互動傳播系統中的作為。
New York City quickly built trust among the responders and citizens. New Orleans experienced considerable difficulty in building trust. But this is one of the lessons: the more overwhelming the event, the more likely turf-asserting tendencies will occur and interfere with the effectiveness of the network. The overarching lesson is: the effectiveness of an HFN depends as much on the participating people and organizations as it does on the communication system through which they interact.(p.18)

conditioned tendency 習慣傾向

在遇到災變時,人們傾向根據舊有習慣的反射動作,而非做出正確能解決問題的決定。 例如911事件中,幾乎每個人都看到燃燒的世貿大樓,但此一資訊很晚才傳給消防隊。 Joseph Pfeifer 認為遇到災變的回應模式,受到既有組織慣例的影響:傾向於社群內傳播、而非社群外傳播。 Joseph Pfeifer 建議建立一個統一的指揮網絡,而領導權在不同組織間分享。

建立有效HFN的指南

:有些項目是重疊的(3,6),看起來只是提醒哪裡可能有問題(3,4,6,7)或哪裡可能有機會(5)與原則(1,2,8)

  1. 確保對話空間的品質與效能。
  2. 可靠的通訊的實體系統
  3. 注意參與組織,組織間文化差異可能無法導致有要行動
  4. 注意網絡間的資訊過量(Information glut)
  5. 了解與利用能促進協同效能的科技技術,如各種網路服務
  6. 處理跨組織協同的問題
  7. 處理組織習慣傾向問題
  8. 持續改善

Note

file link - Google Schloar, XXC