Bibliometrics and citation analysis /De Bellis (2009)
Citation - De Bellis, N. (2009). Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow.
Ch3. The Philosophical Foundations
Being a Marxist, adhering to Engels’s dialectical materialism, he believed that science is a social affair, carried out by an international community of networked researchers, and intimately connected to the whole range of human activities.
身為馬克思主義者，Bernal 支持 Engels (恩格斯)的唯物辯証，相信科學是一種 由國際研究者社群所實現的 社會事務， 並緊密地連結與所有人類活動。
The trust in such a “connected whole” and the impatience with detail, while preventing him from shutting himself up in a laboratory to work at the resolution of a Nobel prize–winning puzzle, influenced his resolution to devote time and effort to the advancement of the material conditions for the achievement of the full cognitive, social, and political potential of science and technology.
In contrast to orthodox Marxists, Bernal didn’t undertake to mechanically reduce the existing corpus of scientific theories to dogmas rooted in capitalist ideology. Instead, he considered science and scientific method the chief promoter of social change and the foundation of all valuable human knowledge, whether concerning nature or society.
His The Social Function of Science (1939), while showing traces of early Soviet investigations on the social aspects of scientific research carried out between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, triggered a knock-on effect of cross-fertilization between Eastern and Western scientometric traditions.
Interestingly, the author’s case for promoting this radical shift in the structure of scientific communication was backed up by arguments partly similar to those employed a few years before by Samuel Bradford in introducing the law of scattering—i.e., the inability of current bibliographic services to cope with the mass of documentation produced daily by researchers—and partly amenable to a deep understanding of the way science actually works.
“the transference of scientific ideas from one set of scientific workers to another is effected by means of visits, personal contacts, and letters.” Thus, even if the obstacles to effective documentation were removed, laboratory life would have priority over written reports, because “there would remain techniques which are impossible to transmit without visual demonstration, and ideas too intangible to be put into writing, yet capable of communication by personal contact.”
The revolution had to take place in two nearly simultaneous steps：a destruction offset by a reconstruction of something completely different.
- the massive publication of periodical literature would be destabilized
- “periodicals exist for science and not science for periodicals.”
- the existing scientific journals had to be abolished, replaced by the set of all individual papers, or something quite similar to the individual papers detached from journals.
- the building of a central clearinghouse or, alternatively, a network of decentralized clearinghouses in close communication with one another, for the storing, collection, organization, and selective dissemination of scientific information.
Bernal's 4 types of scientific archive:
- ephemeral notices of daily laboratory life, such as accounts of new discoveries, techniques, meetings, and discussions;
- handbooks and popular works on science, relating scientific progress to common human needs and aspirations;
- “old-style” journals, serving the limited purpose of giving the latest news from the world of research and discussing the social impact of scientific discoveries; and
- detailed, comprehensive reports and monographs documenting the advancement of each singular field of science over time as well as the interrelationships of various fields.
SCI 與 Bernal
- the idea of a central service for the selective dissemination of current scientific information.
以另一個方式實現 Bernal 選粹與科學資訊服務的想法
- In the early stages of the SCI , Bernal served on its editorial advisory board.
SCI的初期， Bernal 擔任其編輯諮詢委員
- He also wrote a review of Garfield’s Index
評論 Garfield 的索引：缺乏若干高品質期刊，但嘉許其跨學科基礎與設計
4 norms of science
- Universalism: every knowledge claim must be checked against a set of preestablished, impersonal criteria.
- Communism: involves the view that scientific results are public goods assigned to the community, save for the scientist’s right to be individually recognized and properly rewarded for the novelty of a contribution.
- organized skepticism
- Universalism means that all scientists can contribute to science regardless of race, nationality, culture, or gender.
- Communalism entails that scientific results are the common property of the entire scientific community.
- Disinterestedness according to which scientists should not present their results entangled with their personal beliefs or activism for a cause. Scientists should have an arms length attitude towards their findings.
- Organised Scepticism Scepticism means that scientific claims must be exposed to critical scrutiny before being accepted.
in 孫中興講義 科學的「意索」 (Ethos of Science)
- 普遍主義 (universalism)：任何真理主張，不管其來源如何，都取決於一套事先設定的，不因個人意志而轉移的判準。
- 共享主義 (communism; communalism)：科學發現是社會分工合作結果，應和大家分享，不該私自隱藏。
- 不偏不黨 (disinterestedness)：科學界很少有欺騙，因為科學界的監督審查很嚴格。
- 有系統的懷疑 (organized scepticism)：有証據，才相信，才不懷疑；以經驗和邏輯的判準做嚴格的批評。