Bibliometrics and citation analysis /De Bellis (2009)

Citation - De Bellis, N. (2009). Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow.

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Ch3. The Philosophical Foundations

Bernal

John Desmond Bernal

Being a Marxist, adhering to Engels’’s dialectical materialism, he believed that science is a social affair, carried out by an international community of networked researchers, and intimately connected to the whole range of human activities.
身為馬克思主義者,Bernal 支持 Engels (恩格斯)的唯物辯証,相信科學是一種 由國際研究者社群所實現的 社會事務, 並緊密地連結與所有人類活動。


The trust in such a ““connected whole”” and the impatience with detail, while preventing him from shutting himself up in a laboratory to work at the resolution of a Nobel prize––winning puzzle, influenced his resolution to devote time and effort to the advancement of the material conditions for the achievement of the full cognitive, social, and political potential of science and technology.
這種信念使他對於解謎式的研究活動不感興趣,而投身於科學與技術的各個可能方面:認知、社會、政治。


In contrast to orthodox Marxists, Bernal didn’’t undertake to mechanically reduce the existing corpus of scientific theories to dogmas rooted in capitalist ideology. Instead, he considered science and scientific method the chief promoter of social change and the foundation of all valuable human knowledge, whether concerning nature or society.
與正統馬克思主義者不同,Bernal 並沒有以資本主義意識形態作為化約科學理論的教條。而是認為科學與科學方法是社會變革的主要的促進者,以及所有有價值人類知識的基礎


His The Social Function of Science (1939), while showing traces of early Soviet investigations on the social aspects of scientific research carried out between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, triggered a knock-on effect of cross-fertilization between Eastern and Western scientometric traditions.
「科學的社會基礎(1939)」研究19th末到20th初蘇聯科學研究的社會面向。是東西方科學計量研究傳統的起源。


Interestingly, the author’’s case for promoting this radical shift in the structure of scientific communication was backed up by arguments partly similar to those employed a few years before by Samuel Bradford in introducing the law of scattering——i.e., the inability of current bibliographic services to cope with the mass of documentation produced daily by researchers——and partly amenable to a deep understanding of the way science actually works.
其激進的科學傳播主張與Bradford的分配定律相同,即:目前的書目服務無法處理研究者們的大量日常文件產出,並更基於對科學實際運作的理解。


““the transference of scientific ideas from one set of scientific workers to another is effected by means of visits, personal contacts, and letters.”” Thus, even if the obstacles to effective documentation were removed, laboratory life would have priority over written reports, because ““there would remain techniques which are impossible to transmit without visual demonstration, and ideas too intangible to be put into writing, yet capable of communication by personal contact.””
「科學家間是透過拜訪、個人聯絡、與書信往返的方法,進行有效的觀念轉移」因此,即使除去了文件傳遞的障礙,實驗室生活仍然優先於書面報告。因為「仍有非得透過視覺演示無法傳遞的技巧,而且內隱的觀念無法被寫下,只能透過人際溝通傳遞。」

The revolution had to take place in two nearly simultaneous steps:a destruction offset by a reconstruction of something completely different.
改革有兩個同時發生的階段:破壞與重建。

  • the massive publication of periodical literature would be destabilized
    大量出版與期刊文獻的解體
    • “periodicals exist for science and not science for periodicals.”
      「是期刊服務科學,而非期刊造就科學」
    • the existing scientific journals had to be abolished, replaced by the set of all individual papers, or something quite similar to the individual papers detached from journals.
      現存科學期刊被廢除,取而代之的是個人論文,或是從期刊分離出來的論文。
  • the building of a central clearinghouse or, alternatively, a network of decentralized clearinghouses in close communication with one another, for the storing, collection, organization, and selective dissemination of scientific information.
    建立中心化的,或是去中心化的科學交換網絡,使人與人間可以取得、收集、組織、篩選性的傳佈科學資訊。

Bernal's 4 types of scientific archive:

  1. ephemeral notices of daily laboratory life, such as accounts of new discoveries, techniques, meetings, and discussions;
    短暫的日常實驗室紀錄,
  2. handbooks and popular works on science, relating scientific progress to common human needs and aspirations;
    科普作品與工作手冊
  3. ““old-style”” journals, serving the limited purpose of giving the latest news from the world of research and discussing the social impact of scientific discoveries; and
    舊式期刊
  4. detailed, comprehensive reports and monographs documenting the advancement of each singular field of science over time as well as the interrelationships of various fields.
    代表各個領域的完整報告與專書

SCI 與 Bernal

  • the idea of a central service for the selective dissemination of current scientific information.
    以另一個方式實現 Bernal 選粹與科學資訊服務的想法
  • In the early stages of the SCI , Bernal served on its editorial advisory board.
    SCI的初期, Bernal 擔任其編輯諮詢委員
  • He also wrote a review of Garfield’’s Index
    評論 Garfield 的索引:缺乏若干高品質期刊,但嘉許其跨學科基礎與設計

Merton

4 norms of science

  • Universalism: every knowledge claim must be checked against a set of preestablished, impersonal criteria.
  • Communism: involves the view that scientific results are public goods assigned to the community, save for the scientist’’s right to be individually recognized and properly rewarded for the novelty of a contribution.
  • disinterestedness:
  • organized skepticism

in wikipedia:

  • Universalism means that all scientists can contribute to science regardless of race, nationality, culture, or gender.
  • Communalism entails that scientific results are the common property of the entire scientific community.
  • Disinterestedness according to which scientists should not present their results entangled with their personal beliefs or activism for a cause. Scientists should have an arms length attitude towards their findings.
  • Organised Scepticism Scepticism means that scientific claims must be exposed to critical scrutiny before being accepted.

in 孫中興講義 科學的「意索」 (Ethos of Science)
有人將四者的英文字母頭一個字加以組合並簡稱為 CUDOS
一套約束科學家,而且帶有情感的價值和規範的綜合體。

  • 普遍主義 (universalism):任何真理主張,不管其來源如何,都取決於一套事先設定的,不因個人意志而轉移的判準。
  • 共享主義 (communism; communalism):科學發現是社會分工合作結果,應和大家分享,不該私自隱藏。
  • 不偏不黨 (disinterestedness):科學界很少有欺騙,因為科學界的監督審查很嚴格。
  • 有系統的懷疑 (organized scepticism):有証據,才相信,才不懷疑;以經驗和邏輯的判準做嚴格的批評。

Garfield & Small

Price

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