Everyday life in (front of) the screen / D'heer, Courtois & Paulussen (2012)

Citation - D'heer, E., Courtois, C., & Paulussen, S. (2012). Everyday life in (front of) the screen: the consumption of multiple screen technologies in the living room context. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 10th European conference on Interactive tv and video, Berlin, Germany.

Keyword - Media Convergence, Audience, Individualization, Public

URL: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2325654

Abstract

  • 背景/動機:
    • 今日的家戶媒體環境變得更飽和了。智慧手機、平板電腦、筆記型電腦等等設備進入了我們的客廳,改變了我們的電視收視經驗。
      Today's (home) media environment is becoming increasingly saturated. Smartphones, tablets and laptops enter our living room and possibly alter our television viewing experience.
  • 假定:
    • 我們根據使用者的觀點,認為「螢幕技術」具備了文本(內容)及物質層次(技術物件)。
      In this paper, we want to grasp how ‘screen technologies’ are interrelated on a textual (content) and a material level (technological object), from a user perspective.
  • 方法:
    • 根據我們對多螢幕使用者的深度家戶訪談,探討日常生活中電視收視行為的多重次螢幕整合性。
      By means of domestic in-depth interviews with owners of multiple screen technologies, we interpret the integration of multiple secondary screens in the everyday television viewing behavior.
    • 錄音。質性分析軟體。三階段的分析。
      The interviews were conducted by the author and were audiorecorded. The interview transcripts were analyzed with use of The literature outlined above serves as ‘sensitizing concepts’ for the analysis. The qualitative analysis consists of three stages [20], whereby we start from very concrete response categories of issues emerging from the data to evolve to more abstract (conceptual) levels of analysis.
  • 資料:
    • 2011-2012年間,26場半結構訪談。15名男性11名女性,年齡20-57。
      26 semi-structured interviews were conducted late 2011, early 2012.
    • 條件: 居住在Flanders, 至少一台電視、一台行動電腦或平板電腦、一部智慧型手機
      A multi-screen household denotes the ownership of at least one television, one portable computer/tablet and one smartphone. living in Flanders.
  • 發現:
    • 在多數個案中,次螢幕的使用與電視內容無關。
      In most cases, the use of second screens is not related to television content.
    • 然而,我們也發現公共與私人空間的轉變;人們將次螢幕上的電視文本擴展到他們的線上社會環境–網際網路中。這些互動結構提供了個人機會,也帶來了威脅。
      Nonetheless, we also found evidence of changing dynamics concerning public and private spaces, as people extend television text on their second screens into online social spaces or more generally, the Internet. These interactive structures provide individuals with opportunities as well as threats.
    • 探討未來電視消費與接受的研究方向。
      In conclusion, we identify directions for future research on the consumption and reception of television.

背景:

  • Convergence of post-industrial society.
    後工業社會在微觀層次(i.e.家戶)的聚集(匯流)。
  • 資訊技術讓電視內容不再只限於家戶實體空間,也會隨著流動到網際網絡上(如透過twitter)
  • 在大眾廣播媒體中處於末端的觀眾,在網際網絡時代轉而扮演為一個更為混合且分化發展的銀河星系。
    In this respect, the audience, a discursive construct related to broadcasting media, shifts to a more hybrid and fragmented constellation.
  • 家戶媒體
    • Domestication: a theory concept for understanding the “careers” of media technologies within the micro context of the home.
    • [16] Morley, D. and R. Silverstone, Domestic communication: Technologies and meanings. Media, Culture and Society, 1990. 12(1): p. 31-55.
    • [17] Silverstone, R., Television and everyday life1994, Oxon: Routledge.
    • [18] Silverstone, R., E. Hirsch, and D. Morley, Information and communication technologies and the moral economy of the household, in Consuming technologies. Media and information in domestic spaces, R. Silverstone and E. Hirsch, Editors. 1992, Routledge: London. p. 115-131.

結果

1.「螢幕」在日常生活中的角色

First, we will focus on the role of screen technologies in our everyday routines.

  • 電視的結構性使用: 家戶的晚間電視
  • 雖然電視機仍是主要的用品,但不如電腦或平板那樣的整合在夜間的日常例行生活中。不論年齡性別,回家都會先打開電腦。在所有個案中,電腦(桌機)都放在「社會性場所(social place)」中,如客廳或餐廳。人們較不「電視導向」,意味著沒有看很多電視節目,或將看電視作為主要活動。在四個個案中,平板會在「料理時間中使用」,由女性或電視只放在客廳的時候。
  • 「電視沙發時間」多在 7-8點,而次螢幕一樣成為例行活動的一部分。只有兩位受訪者在看電視的時候不會使用次螢幕。
  • 平板是「電視沙發時間」的次螢幕首選,因為平板比桌機易用,且比智慧手機螢幕大能提供較好的使用體驗。
  • 次螢幕的使用是非連續的,玩遊戲、上網、收信處理小工作,這讓人們容易在電視與電腦螢幕間切換。
  • 電視螢幕扮演主要或次要的角色,取決於電視節目內容。例行性的電視節目內容(每日肥皂劇)不需要全部的注意力,「例行看電視模式(Routine TV viewing mode)」或「監看模式(monitoring viewing mode)」1)讓電視成為主要也是次要螢幕,觀眾只要知道電視正在播放就好。
  • 小螢幕行為:
    • 最常出現的小螢幕行為是:檢察Facebook、電子郵件、上網瀏覽。
  • 在看電視時,人們也一邊在「系統性地」連結到「外在世界」(即,他的線上社會網絡)
    • 「受訪者: 實際上你需要知道現在的狀況,不是新聞,而是你周遭發生了什麼事…(Freso (33, M): Actually you want to stay up to date, not about the news, but about what happens around you…)
  • 驚人的是,在大多數的情況下,另一個家族成員在看電視的時候。次螢幕內容與電視螢幕不相關內容(Rather strikingly however, in most cases, the use of second screens is related to television content other family members are watching.) 顯然人們並沒有在次螢幕上向電視妥協自己的內容。

Collective individualization

2. 在客廳與社會動態情境下的多螢幕的使用(消費)行為
Secondly, we relate the consumption of multiple screens to the social dynamics within the living room context.

  • 同在客廳裡,各看各的戲:
    • 一個人決定電視內容,其他人則使用平板來看自己感興趣的內容。儘管各看各的,因為還在相同電視機前面,家族成員間必要時還是可以有所交流。各看各的螢幕,且容易被打斷的小螢幕收視,對線下(offline)社會互動有最小的影響。
    • 家庭成員們在現實是一起的,但是內容的消費卻是各自分開的。
      客廳成為一個「各自團聚」的媒體使用場所。
      making the living room a place where media technologies are consumed ‘alone together’.
  • 客廳仍然是家庭的社會中心,但同時也是高度技術性的環境。這樣的多螢幕使用,就這樣發生而沒有被質疑過,正指出了多媒體環境的「不可見(invisibility)」與重要性,如何默默的改變電視節目內容使用的社會實踐。而這些電視觀看的社會實踐(看電視時的談論與思考),構成了所謂的「觀眾」。
    The living room remains the social hub of the family, but at the same time it is a highly technological environment. The presence of these multiple screens of is rarely questioned or even perceived as such, which points to the ‘invisibility’ and accordingly the significance of the multi-media environment [23], as it silently changes the social practices surrounding TV consumption. It is indeed these the social practices of TV viewing (i.e. viewer talk and thought on television consumption), through which ‘the audience’ is constituted.

Converging (social) spaces 匯流的(社會)空間

3. 模糊中的界線: 私人領域與線上世界 Finally, we provide insight in the blurring lines between the private realm of the home and the online world.

  • 電視節目觀看行為中的 Remediation(再媒介化):
    • 六位受訪者有提到他們對電視節目觀看的再媒介化行為。
      • 透過 Twitter 或 Facebook,針對電視內容(新聞、時事與實境節目秀)發表評論
      • 這些受訪者並未向家人或向私密空間(家戶)分享自己的想法。在家戶中觀看電視媒體,卻並未將資訊再媒介回到客廳中。
    • 在家戶內外的個人,成為社會中主要的「媒體再生產單位」。而特別是網際網路與社會媒體,讓家戶中的個人,能連結到由廣播電視所結合的流動性結構化觀眾,並切斷於同一空間中共同觀看的宰制。
      Individuals both inside and outside the family then become the main ‘reproduction unit’ for the social in the life world [24, p. 128]. The Internet, and social media in particular, allows individual family members to reconnect through fluidly constructed audiences, united by broadcasting television, disconnected afterwards, with the predominant common feature being the act of viewing.
  • 電視觀看的延伸(be reflexive concerning our TV consumption),讓我們能夠控制、管理、豐富電視節目內容(control, manage and enrich television content)。如:找相關資訊、找翻譯、地理上的位置、假日去處、特定節目的評價(IMDb)。
    • 網際網路成為延伸電視內容的資訊門戶(information gateway)。電視媒體內容成為引發他們資訊閱讀與行動的架構
  • 建立社會自我: 透過觀看電視內容的再媒介行為,控制與管理自己的個人認同。
    the remediation of television consumption allows us to control and manage our identity.
    • Twitter, Facebook 這類線上平台不只是發表個人的意見與想法,同時也是自我的創作與展現。
      Online platforms such as Twitter and Facebook are not only sites of opinion and though but also places for self-creation and manifestation.
    • 如:當受訪者提到那些他們觀看但不想「分享」的內容時,如何意識到網際網路上個人資訊揭露的風險問題,以及如何進行自我查禁(self-censorship)。

Note

Convergence, Remediation, immediacy, hypermediacy, 班雅明,機械複製時代的藝術作品 麥可魯漢, Remediation : understanding new media Haraway

file link - Google Schloar, XXC

1)
Lindlof, T.R., J.S. Milton, and D. Wilkinson, Accommodation of Video and Television in the American Family, in World Families watch television, J. Lull, Editor 1988, Sage Publications: Newbury Park, CA. p. 158-192.