Content-enriched communication-supporting the social uses of TV /Chorianopoulos (2007)

Citation - Chorianopoulos, K. (2007). Content-Enriched Communication-Supporting the Social Uses of TV. JOURNAL-COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK, 6(1), 23.

Keyword - social television

Abstract

  • 背景/動機:
  • 假定:
  • 方法:
  • 資料:
  • 發現:

定義 互動電視的可社會性

  • 從互動電視(iTV)說起,技術的發展,讓互動電視將其他數位平台(網際網路、行動)上的內容帶到電視中;另一方面,也將電視內容帶到其他數位平台上。
  • 互動電視,相較傳統電視,要讓被動的觀眾,成為電視觀賞的主動參與者。
  • 定義互動電視:
    • 一人與一個以上影音連網設備的使用體驗。 as a user experience that involves at least one user and one, or more, audiovisual and networked devices.
    • 「以往的定義著重在技術層面,忽略傳統電視的互動潛質。例如,觀眾會在心裡與問答節目參賽者、或與一起看電視的朋友們競爭。觀眾對電視內容也有情感上的反應行動,他們會錄下、分享電視內容、與朋友討論,不論是在看電視的同時或看完之後。在這種情境下,不只有易用性、可社會性的問題也值得關注。」
      Previous definitions were focused on the technological aspects and ignored the fact that even traditional TV is potentially interactive. For example, viewers compete mentally with quiz show participants, or between collocated groups. Moreover, viewers react emotionally to TV content – they record and share TV content with friends and discuss shows either in real time, or afterwards. In this context, it is necessary to pay attention not only to usability issues, but also to sociability.(P.23)

電視的社會層面

  • Putnam, 認為電視減低公民參與(civic engagement)
  • Silverstone (1994)1), Lee & Lee (1995)2) 認為電視有助於社會成員建立共同經驗,在寬廣的社會中連結一起,是一種「社會膠水(social glue)」。
  • 然而,在當代社會中,要一起共賞電視越來越困難。
  • 本文,採用結合大眾媒體與人際傳播的架構,稱之為「內容沃養的傳播(content-enriched communication)」。
  • 互動電視應用,協助人們遠距離連結(不同家戶間,同時觀看電視的傳播溝通)、透過共看電視以共享體驗(異時觀看電視節目的社群傳播)
    iTV applications and services that support human connectedness over a distance (e.g. synchronous communication about a TV programme between dispersed households), or that enhance the shared experience that comes with TV co-viewing (e.g. asynchronous communication about a TV programme).

電視的技術層面

  • 電視內容遞送的技術演進
    • 廣播、光碟
    • 有線、STB(機上盒)、數位地上波
    • 網際網路、P2P
  • content-enriched communication 將技術分為兩個部分: 內容遞送、人際溝通。
  • 其他技術研究: 雖然有探討內容消費與人際傳播,但
    • CSCW(computer supported cooperative work, 電腦輔助協作),較少研究休閒活動,如看電視
    • HCI(human-computer interaction, 人機互動),也只研究工作中的視訊傳播
  • 融合電視內容的人際溝通技術研究
    • AmigoTV: IM, 表情符號, 語音

後面,有照片與音樂分享、UGC、UCD、Social presence、Seamless awareness、Interaction and visual design 等

電視的傳播,不只是大眾傳播,也包含了電視觀眾間的人際傳播,因此是一種「內容沃養傳播(content-enriched communication)」,

電視社會性

Taxonomy of TV sociability

將互動電視系統可以發展的社會互動與應用機制,根據時間與空間,劃分為四個不同情境:

  • 空間: 異地觀看-同處觀看 Distance-Collocated Viewing
  • 時間: 同時溝通-異時溝通 Synchronous-Asynchronous Communication
  • 異地同時觀看(Synchronous Viewing 
Over Distance)
    異地同時觀看可能是最有趣的情境,例如,分隔兩地的觀眾觀看相同的電視內容。電視應用,需要重新創造出在人們一起觀看的體驗。讓呈現觀眾們各自的在場狀態,提供各種不同的人際溝通的功能,引發更多的討論與加強彼此的社會連結。
    This is probably the most interesting scenario, because the requirement it poses is to recreate the experience of collocated group viewing, when the viewers are located in two or more distant places. For example, distant viewers should be able to watch together popular social TV content, such as sports, quiz shows, series, reality shows.A good starting point is to consider ways to disclose presence and status of viewers, to continue with support for multiple interpersonal communication modalities (non-verbal most notably), and to summarise the social experience with automated highlight production, which could motivate further discussion and social bonding between the distant viewers.
  • 異地異時觀看(Asynchronous viewing over a distance)
    若考慮到兩地的觀眾有各自的時間行程,日常生活步調,甚至身處不同的時區,這或許是最可行的情境。在這種情境,社會電視應用可以錄下或分享節目內容,讓使用者了解社群成員的收視習慣。讓使用者對內容下註解,或錄下與觀看內容時的互動。紀錄每個人的行為,在下一次取用內容的時候,提供一些個人化的內容,促進非同時的傳播。可以是字幕,或是視覺標記,文字或語音的註解,等等。
    This a feasible scenario if we consider that distance viewers might have very different time-schedules, patterns of daily life activities, or even live in distant time zones. Then, the probability of synchronous co-viewing is rather limited. In this case, a social TV system could record and share shows and viewing habits with the members of the social circle. In addition, a social TV system should allow annotation of content and recording of interactions, such as pausing, skipping, replaying and content browsing. In this way, each time a particular TV programme is accessed, a trace is kept, which is exploited at the next access, in order to personalise the content and most notably to provide a motivation for asynchronous communication. This could be rather subtle, such as visual annotation of the content highlights, or could be more explicit such as audio and text comments.
  • 同地異時觀看(Asynchronous viewing at the same place)
    即便是同一個觀看電視的場所,人們也有可能無法一起同時觀看。功能性的字幕也許最適合提供共同觀看的經驗。
    The main motivation for the development of social TV systems is based on the need to bridge the distance between social circles of people, but there is also the case that collocated groups of people do not manage to meet as often as they wish for a social TV night. A subset of the functionality that was described in the previous case might be the most appropriate here.

Note

file link - Google Schloar, XXC

2)
Lee, B., & Lee, R. (1995). How and Why People Watch TV: Implications for the Future of Interactive Television. Journal of Advertising Research, 35(6), 9-18.