Social cognitive theory [社會認知理論]

社會認知理論(Social Cognitive Theory, SCT) 認為個人在社會中的行動與舉止,都是透過對社會中他人行為的觀察而學習來的。即,個人知識與行為的學習,乃是透過自我激勵與自我調整(self-regulatory)機制,在社會互動、經驗的情境中,依據自己對他者的觀察,而自我建構(modeling)所習得的。而非受到教學內容素材與媒體的影響。

此理論提供一個包含人、行為、環境的三角模型架構。在此架構中包含許多概念,其中最為Bandura強調的是自我效能(Self-efficacy)。自我效能類似自信類似,是一種基於認為自己具有能力以完成任務的信念。[自我效力可以應用在健康的議題上,例如研究自我效力與醫療效果的關係。?]

與社會認知的區別:
社會認知理論(Social Cognitive Theory, SCT) 與社會心理學中的社會認知(social cognition) 並不完全相同。SCT 專指由A. Bandura 所發展出來的理論。

應用:
教育、心理學、傳播與行銷、公共健康,等等。

歷史與起源

N.E. MillerJ. Dollard最早在1941年提出社會學習與想像理論,該理論認為人類對特定行為的學習是透過觀察。藉由模仿所觀察的行為,觀察者會固化所習得的行為,並獲得一正面強化(reinforcement)(Miller & Dollard, 1941)。]

此一社會學習命題由Albert Bandura與 Walters (1962)在《社會學習與個型發展 (Social Learning and Personality Development)》一書中得到進一步的擴充與理論化。即提出了 observational learning and vicarious reinforcement。

1977 年 Bandura 出版 “Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change”,正式提出 self-efficacy。

1986 年 Bandura 出版 “Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory”,提出cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes 對人類行為變化與調適的影響。建立其社會認知理論。People are viewed as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating rather than as reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental forces or driven by concealed inner impulses. From this theoretical perspective, human functioning is viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences.

建立完理論架構之後, Bandura 陸續發展出許多個人行為的面向,其中許多回歸到自律、自我效力(自信)等議題。

Inhibitory and Disinhibitory Effects|抑制與非抑制效果

觀察者的觀察結果會受到兩種不同的影響。當觀察者看到他人在某種社會情勢中的因為其行為被懲罰時,會產生一種抑制效果(inhibitory effect)。而一個非抑制效果(disinhibitory effect),則是當行為受到讚揚時,觀察者在對此行為學習的想像中的強化(reinforcement)活動(Miller, 2005)。替代強化(Vicarious reinforcement)解釋 當觀察者雖未預期經驗實際回報或懲罰,但預估想像的行為中以上的效果會有類似的結果。這部份的社會認知理論相當依靠結果預期理論(outcome expectancies)。

重要概念

(Source: Glanz et al, 2002, p169.)

環境(Environment): 個人外在的物理性因素。提供機會與社會支援。
Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social support.

情勢(Situation): 對環境的感知。修正感知錯誤並提供健康的形式。
Perception of the environment; correct misperceptions and promote healthful forms.

行為能力(Behavioral capability): 執行行為的知識與能力。透過技巧訓練精熟學習。
Knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior; promote mastery learning through skills training.

期望(Expectations): 行為的預期產出。建立行為的正面結果。
Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior; Model positive outcomes of healthful behavior.

期待(Expectancies): 個人對結果的預定評價,激勵。
The values that the person places on a given outcome, incentives; Present outcomes of change that have functional meaning.

自律(Self-control): 規律化個人達成目標的行為。提供自我檢視、目標設定、問題解決、與自我獎勵的機會。
Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance; Provide opportunities for self-monitoring, goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward.

觀察學習(Observational learning): 透過觀察他人行為與結果,包含目標行為的可信賴角色模型,以習得行為。
Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and outcomes of others’ behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior.

強化(Reinforcements): 回應 [增強或減弱 再次出現事件的相似性的 個人行為]。促進自我啟動回饋與激勵。
Responses to a person’s behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of reoccurrence; Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives.

自我效能(Self-efficacy): 個人對能夠完成特定工作的能力的自信心。
The person’s confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral change in small steps to ensure success.

情感處理回應(Emotional coping responses): 個人用來處理情感刺激的策略或內隱技巧。提供問題解學與壓力管理的訓練。
Strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management.

互惠決定論(Reciprocal determinism): 在行為發生時,考慮到多重手段以改變行為,其個人、行為、與環境的動態互動。此多重手段包括環境改變、技巧改變、與個人改變。
The dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental, skill, and personal change.

Identification and Self-Efficacy|認同與自我效能

社會認知理論認為,當在觀察者與模式間有一緊密的認同(identification)存在,並且觀察者也能妥善的處理其自我效能(self-efficacy)時,學習更可能發生。在動機、認知與情感的交織歷程中,自我效能是人類動機、情感、行為基礎斷定的重要集合(Bandura, 1989)。認同可以使觀察者與另一人在想像中感覺到一種一對一的連結關係,並如果觀察者覺得他有這種能力可以進行想像中的活動,他將更可能將這些想像實現(Bandura, 1988)。

Bandura 於 1977 進一步提出自我效能(self-efficacy)的概念,以反駁傳統學習理論中的理解學習。

“people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances”

References

  • Miwa, M. (2005). Bandura's Social Cognition. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 54-57). Medford, N.J. : Information Today.

References (忘了哪裡來的?)

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