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folksonomy [2016/10/23 04:11] (current)
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 +==Folksonomy [群眾分類法]==
 +**俗民分類** / 大眾分類 / 群眾分類 / 通俗分類 / 分眾分類 / 社群分類
 +
 +**keyword** : [[Information organization]],​ [[classification]],​ [[social network]]
 +
 +**語源**: Folksonomy 一詞是由資訊架構師Thomas Vander Wal 於2004年在一群資訊架構師討論區中所創((http://​vanderwal.net/​folksonomy.html)) ((http://​atomiq.org/​archives/​2004/​08/​folksonomy_social_classification.html))。 一開始只是用來含括當時持續出現的Web2.0服務(e.g.,​ Furl, Flickr & Del.icio.us)中,利用使用者自行分類而形成系統整體分類架構的現象;而後續引申成為一種與專業者分類相對的,由下而上建構的分類系統。 ​
 +
 +**理論**: 但若追溯到社會學理論研究,實際上這類由下而上的分類機制並非Web2.0時代的創舉,而是早已經出現在人類的社會文化之中。這類的研究可以遠溯至 Durkheim 與 Mauss對原始部落的社會學分類研究(Durkheim & Mauss, 1967),後續的研究分別發展成為[[:​knowledge sociology:​|知識社會學]]與[[:​social informatics:​|資訊社會學]]的研究主題領域,但反而少有再回到原本資訊組織分類的研究領域中。原本 Vander Wal 用來指稱的新型態標記分類網路服務平台,近來傾向以更精確的「協同標記系統(collaborative tagging system)」來稱呼。
 +
 +**定義**:
 +
 +因此「群眾分類法」在定義上傾向用來表示:​ (1) 一種資訊分類架構(classification scheme),是由使用者從下而上建構的,而非由系統設計者從上而下建構的;(2) 一種使用者自行分類取代系統分類的現象。
 +
 +但群眾分類法並不需要是一種網際網路的服務應用,也並非所有類似的網路服務都可以稱為是群眾分類法的應用。如使用者自行分類(如Gmail的label)或大量使用者回饋改良相關性(Google Reader中的 Tagging 與 Recommendation)的網際網路應用服務,都不能算是應用群眾分類法。(但後者可以被視為一種collaborative tagging的應用)
 +
 +----
 +
 +(以下為翻譯自Wikipedia(2006)的部份,​ 現在有許多內容都被撤換了,​ 是少數越改越短的文章,​ 留下以紀錄之 Translated form [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Folksonomy|wikipedia]] , photo by [[http://​www.flickr.com/​photos/​psd/​|psd]] )
 +
 +{{http://​static.flickr.com/​5/​5128681_18ac5101ad_m.jpg }} **Folksonomy** - 是由使用者產生的任意關鍵字的協同分類工作。這個現象源於2004出現的許多社會軟體([[social software]])。例如分享書籤網站 「[[http://​del.icio.us|del.icio.us]]」,相片分享網站「[[http://​www.flickr.com/​|Flickr]]」,目標分享網站「[[http://​www.43things.com/​|43 Things]]」等。
 +
 +[[http://​gmail.google.com|Gmail]]的標籤分類也是一種自訂關鍵字的分類方法,不過它並不能說是群眾分類,因為使用者彼此之間並不能分享分類的資訊。「群眾分類」與圖書資訊學中的「分面分類法」([[faceted classification]])並沒有直接關係。
 +
 +通常,大家會認為「群眾分類」就是使用自訂的標籤進行分類(tagging)。但就這個定義來說,「群眾分類」與社會學與人類學已經行之有年的「常民分類」(folk classifications)研究--非專業者如何分類--極為類似。Harold Conklin 的《Folk Classification:​ A Topically Arranged Bibliography of Contemporary and Background References Through 1971. (1972, ISBN 0913516023) 就是其中之一。
 +
 +群眾分類最能發揮在有很多使用者,而且描述相同一批資訊的時候。例如,在[[http://​del.icio.us|del.icio.us]]中有許多人都記錄[[http://​del.icio.us/​url/​bca8b85b54a7e6c01a1bcfaf15be1df5|Wikipedia]]這個網址,每個人都對這個網址作了些不同的描述。在這些不同的描述語彙中,del.icio.us會顯示最常被用的語彙:reference,​ wiki, encyclopedia。
 +
 +「Jon Udell (2004)認為這種不受管制,使用關鍵字的分類法並非以往沒有的,並且其基礎的差別在於這種分類系統具有回饋的特色。」[[http://​www.adammathes.com/​academic/​computer-mediated-communication/​folksonomies.html]]
 +
 +Folksonomy是由 Thomas Vander Wal 所創,以 folk (或 folks)與 taxonomy 所組成的詞彙。而taxonomy是由希臘字的"​taxis"​與"​nomos"​所組成的。"​taxis"​指分類(classification),而"​nomos"​是指管理的意思(management)。"​folk"​字源是德文,意思是人民、群眾(people)。因此"​folksonomy"​(群眾分類)指的是一般人進行的分類法系統。
 +
 +(This article is translated form Wikipedia, so it is a GNU license document, see the [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Wikipedia:​Copyrights|copyright in Wikipedia]] )
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +==folksonomy 分類問題初探==
 +* folksonomy定義
 +* folksonomy 應用
 +* 分類法學理
 +** 使用者面向
 +** 分類法發展
 +* anthropology and folk classification
 +* cultural typification
 +* Burdieu'​s habitus
 +
 +Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
 +
 +==links==
 +* 英文原文 Wikipedia http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Folksonomy
 +* Isaac 關於 folksonomy,他譯為「通俗分類」 http://​www.isaacmao.com/​2004/​11/​5/​
 +* Owen 的說明,他譯為「分眾分類」 http://​blog.timetide.net/​archives/​2005/​01/​15/​20050115015808.php
 +* del.icio.us 中關於 folksonomy 的書籤 [http://​del.icio.us/​tag/​folksonomy /​del.icio.us/​tag/​folksonomy] ​
 +* 很棒的"​folksonomy"​圖片, http://​www.flickr.com/​photos/​psd/​5128681/ ​
 +
 +
 +===XXC'​s del.icio.us about folksonomy===
 +
 +{{rss>​http://​del.icio.us/​rss/​xxc/​folksonomy 20}}
 +
 +===XXC'​s Furl about folksonomy===
 +
 +{{rss>​http://​www.furl.net/​members/​e_xxc/​rss.xml?​topic=folksonomy 20}}
 +
 +==相關論文書目==
 +
 +
 +==== 相關論文 ====
 +* 理論
 +** 社會學理論
 +*** [[:​study:​Berger,​ P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality|Berger,​ P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: Doubleday.]]
 +*** [[:​study:​Schutz,​ A. (1970). On phenomenology and social relations]]:​ University of Chicago Press Chicago.
 +*** [[:​study:​Schutz,​ A., & Luckman, T. (1973). The structures of the life-world]] (R. Zaner & J. HT Englehadt, Trans.): Evanston, IL: Northwestern university Press.
 +*** [[:​study:​Durkheim,​ E., & Mauss, M. (1967). Primitive classification|Durkheim,​ E., & Mauss, M. (1967). Primitive classification (R. Needham, Trans.). London: Heinemann Educational Publishers.]]
 +
 +* 理論性實徵研究
 +** 資訊科學
 +*** [[:​study:​Cooper,​ L. Z. (2004). The socialization of information behavior|Cooper,​ L. Z. (2004). The socialization of information behavior: A case study of cognitive categories for library information. The Library Quarterly, 74(3), 299-336.]]
 +*** [[:​study:​Kwasnik,​ B. (1989). How a personal document'​s intended use or purpose affects its classification in an office]]. Proceedings of the 12th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, 207-210.
 +
 +* 定義
 +** Mathes, A. (2004). Folksonomies - [[http://​www.adammathes.com/​academic/​computer-mediated-communication/​folksonomies.html |Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata]]. Computer Mediated Communication,​ LIS590CMC (Doctoral Seminar), Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign,​ December. (I did some  [[:​study:​Mathes,​ A. (2004). Folksonomies-cooperative classification and communication through shared metadata|translation here]])
 +** 定義: 協同標記系統 collaborative tagging system
 +*** Hammond, T., Hannay, T., Lund, B., and Scott J. (2005). Social Bookmarking Tools (I)- A General Review. http://​www.dlib.org/​dlib/​april05/​hammond/​04hammond.html
 +
 +
 +* 應用
 +** 學術性協同標記系統 Social Bookmarking & Scholarly collaborative tagging system
 +*** Lund, B., Hammond T., Flack M., and Hannay T. (2005). Social Bookmarking Tools (II)- A Case Study - Connotea. http://​www.dlib.org/​dlib/​april05/​lund/​04lund.html
 +** 社會網絡分析演算法
 +*** [[:​study:​Noll,​ M. G., & Yeung, A. (2009). Telling experts from spammers]]: Expertise ranking in folksonomies.
 +*** [[:​study:​Yeung,​ C. A., Noll, M. G., Gibbins, N., Meinel, C., & Shadbolt, N. (2009). On measuring expertise in collaborative tagging systems]]. Proceedings of the WebSci'​09:​ Society On-Line, 18-20.
 +
 +
 +====unread, in endnote====
 +* Anthias, F. (1998). Rethinking social divisions: Some notes towards a theoretical framework. The Sociological Review, 46(3), 505-535.
 +* Boisot, M., & Li, Y. (2005). Codification,​ abstraction,​ and firm differences:​ A cognitive information-based perspective. Journal of Bioeconomics,​ 7(3), 309-334.
 +* Dye, J. (2006). Folksonomy: A game of high-tech (and high-stakes) tag. Econtent, 29(3), 38-43.
 +* Ghiselin, M. T., & Landa, J. T. (2005). The economics and bioeconomics of folk and scientific classification. Journal of Bioeconomics,​ 7(3), 221-238.
 +* Glover, E., Tsioutsiouliklis,​ K., Lawrence, S., Pennock, D., & Flake, G. (2002). Using web structure for classifying and describing {w}eb pages. Paper presented at the Proceedings of WWW-02, International Conference on the World Wide Web.
 +* Golder, S., & Huberman, B. (2005). The structure of collaborative tagging systems. from http://​arxiv.org/​abs/​cs.DL/​0508082 ​
 +* Golder, S. A., & Huberman, B. A. (2006). Usage patterns of collaborative tagging systems. Journal Of Information Science, 32(2), 198-208.
 +* Guy, M., & Tonkin, E. (2006). Folksonomies:​ Tidying up tags? D-Lib Magazine, 12(1).
 +* Hotho, A., Jaschke, R., Schmitz, C., & Stumme, C. (2006). Information retrieval in folksonomies:​ Search and ranking. In Semantic web: Research and applications,​ proceedings (Vol. 4011, pp. 411-426).
 +* Kautz, H., Selman, B., & Shah, M. (2005). Referral web: Combining social networks and collaborative filtering. from http://​citeseer.ist.psu.edu/​kautz97referralweb.html ​
 +* Keane, W. (2003). Semiotics and the social analysis of material things. Language and Communication,​ 23(3-4), 409-425.
 +* Lash, S. (2001). Technological forms of life. Theory, Culture & Society, 18(1), 105.
 +* Lizardo, O. (2004). The cognitive origins of bourdieu'​s habitus. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 34(4), 375-401.
 +* Martin, J. L. (2002). Power, authority, and the constraint of belief systems. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 861-904.
 +* Mika, P. (2005). Ontologies are us: A unified model of social networks and semantics. In Semantic web - iswc 2005, proceedings (Vol. 3729, pp. 522-536).
 +* Needham, R. (1963). Introduction. In Primitive classification (pp. vii-xlviii). London: Cohen & West.
 +* Newman, M. E. J. (2003). The structure and function of complex networks. from http://​arxiv.org/​abs/​cond-mat/​0303516 ​
 +* Porter, J. (2005). Folksonomies:​ A user-driven approach to organizing content. User Interface Engineering,​ from http://​www.uie.com/​articles/​folksonomies/ ​
 +* Russell, T. (2005). Contextual authority tagging: Cognitive authority through folksonomy. 2005, from http://​www.terrellrussell.com/​projects/​contextualauthoritytagging/​conauthtag200505.pdf
 +* Schutz, A., Walsh, G., & Lehnert, F. (1990). The phenomenology of the social world. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
 +* Shen, K., & Wu, L. (2005). Folksonomy as a complex network. from http://​arxiv.org/​abs/​cs.IR/​0509072 ​
 +* Veres, C. (2006). The language of folksonomies:​ What tags reveal about user classification. In Natural language processing and information systems, proceedings (Vol. 3999, pp. 58-69).
 +* Wu, H., Gordon, M., & DeMaagd, K. (2004). Document co-organization in an online knowledge community.
 +* Zerubavel, E. (1997). Social mindscapes: An invitation to cognitive sociology: Harvard University Press.
 +* Zhang, L., Wu, X., & Yu, Y. (2006). Emergent semantics from folksonomies:​ A quantitative study. In Journal on data semantics vi (Vol. 4090, pp. 168-186).
 +
 +
 +
 +====相關文章====
 +* Easy library 翻譯為「自由分類法」 http://​www.csdl.ac.cn/​ezlibrarian/​archives/​000904.html
 +* Isaac 與 Acer 對談,關於 blog 與 folksonomy http://​ooof.blogbus.com/​logs/​2005/​04/​1094663.html
 +
 +
 +====here are links form wikipedia====
 +I still didn't read them all ...
 +
 +* [http://​www.corante.com/​many/​archives/​2004/​08/​25/​folksonomy.php Clay Shirky on folksonomy]
 +* [http://​atomiq.org/​archives/​2004/​08/​folksonomy_social_classification.html Gene Smith on folksonomy]
 +* [http://​www.vanderwal.net/​random/​category.php?​cat=153 Vanderwal on folksonomy]
 +* [http://​www.peterme.com/​archives/​000444.html Mob indexing? Folk categorization?​ Social tagging?]
 +* [http://​blogger.iftf.org/​Future/​000664.html Flickr and "​folksonomies"​]
 +* [http://​poorbuthappy.com/​ease/​archives/​2005/​01/​15/​2419/​ Peter Van Dijck on Emergent i18n effects in folksonomies]
 +* [http://​www.metafilter.com/​tags.mefi MetaFilter folksonomy] ​
 +* [http://​www.technorati.com/​tag/​ Technorati folksonomy]
 +* [http://​www.salon.com/​tech/​feature/​2005/​02/​08/​tagging/​ Salon.com'​s popular introduction to Folksonomy]
 +* [http://​seokeywordanalysis.com/​seotools/​infobase/​folksonomy/​ Folksonomy Encyclopedia of Terms]
 +* [http://​blog.forret.com/​blog/​2005/​02/​folksonomizer-generic-folksonomy.html Folksonomizer]:​ generic folksonomy service
 +* [http://​podcasttag.com/​ Podcast Tags folksonomy] folksonomy specific to podcasts
 +
 +
 +====folksonomy paper in XXC's Citeulike====
 +{{rss>​http://​www.citeulike.org/​rss/​user/​xxc/​tag/​folksonomy 20}}
 +
 +
 +{{tag>​folksonomy lis information_organization classification}}