[diary] 18-07-17-log

價值實現時間 (Time-to-value, TtV)

價值實現時間 (Time-to-value, TtV) 是從價值被提出來(request)到被實現(delivery)的時間。

實務上,指產品能為企業帶來價值的時間,或顧客能為企業帶來價值的時間。

Time-to-Value 策略,主張最好的策略並非滿足所有價值,或提出更高的價值,而是在最短的時間滿足「夠好」的價值。也就是說,應該找出最必要的價值,用速度取勝。

Akhilesh Gulati 舉的例子1):一個完整的員工培訓從上課到實習,需要18個月,這意味著一個員工要過一年半以後,才能在企業中成為戰力提供價值。

  • 「測量TtV」也就是將如何優化TtV,作為設計挑戰。通常的挑戰目標,設定為「如何縮短提供價值的時間」。
    • 傳統的手段,是將培訓工作與課程標準化與重新設計,讓培訓工作可以用更短的時間,如只要12個月的培訓,就能夠有原本的成效。
    • 另一種精益(lean)的方法,是找出「剛好就好的價值項目」,先找出可以產生企業價值的項目,使得培訓只需數周的時間,就能上線工作。精益方法需要先研究分析,找出最有價值的項目,但真正的阻礙是在組織內部:許多十年以上的資深員工覺得這種培訓「亂搞」、「不夠格」、「荒唐」。

關鍵在於:對企業而言,什麼是「價值」?為了提高企業活動的價值,不只是做的更多、更快、更好、更標準,有時候是做得更少、更準、更輕盈。

在管理上,聚焦在精益TtV的優點在於: 不論一個產品或系統再怎麼好,使用者與工作流程都需要一段時間去調整適應,系統才能發揮應有的價值(TtV),因此能發揮價值的時間,一定長過於「只是把事情做完」的時間。但,當外在環境變動太快,等到真的能發揮「預定設計應有的產出」時,已經沒有價值了。

在消費性的經營策略上,縮短消費者/使用者的「瞭解產品價值」的時間。定義出使用體驗的「Aha!」時刻,然後盡可能減少中間的阻礙,提早讓它發生:

  • Dropbox: 第一次把檔案放進共享資料夾的時刻。
  • Facebook: 開始用的10天內,能夠加入7位朋友2)
  • Twitter: follows 30 people 3)
  • Zynga: day 1 retention. someone come back the next day after signing up for a game. 4)
  • Slack: the number is 2,000 — 2,000 messages. “Based on experience of which companies stuck with us and which didn't, we decided that any team that has exchanged 2,000 messages in its history has tried Slack — really tried it,” Butterfield says. “For a team around 50 people that means about 10 hours’ worth of messages. For a typical team of 10 people, that’s maybe a week’s worth of messages. But it hit us that, regardless of any other factor, after 2,000 messages, 93% of those customers are still using Slack today.”5)

Richard Price 認為有三種 Aha! moment 的操作型定義:

  • Network density: X friends or connections made in Y days
  • Content added: X bits of content added
  • Visit frequency: Visiting again within X days

找出 Aha! moment 的方法,通常是通過數據分析(不同行為模式的隊列分析/存活分析/cohort analysis,比較出最顯著有效的行為模式)。之後透過UX設計與研究,優化產品體驗設計。

Why Consumerized Enterprise Software Points to the Future

為何「消費化企業軟體」是未來? Why Consumerized Enterprise Software Points to the Future

(前文提到,近年來企業員工投入度低迷,導致低生產力與高流動率。而背後的關鍵,因為目前工作組織有更多的交叉與協作,工作者的職涯,也不像以往可以長期固定在一個專業角色上。大部分的工作環境,當工作者面臨新的挑戰,卻沒有能力建立該有的連結與調整角色。但研究發現,關鍵在於朋友連結的數量:在工作上有一個好朋友,投入度會增加一倍。

傳統大型企業軟體的設計,著重於「廣度/廣泛的」工具與「工作效率」,以大量標準化犧牲掉個別差異的彈性,但員工(買方)想要的是「深度」與「工作品質」。因此「消費化的企業軟體」被認為是一種翻轉性的未來方向。)

Platforms in the CES space are all driven by notifications and invitations. They’re designed to develop, and are driven by, users’ relationships. And this helps CES overcome a big problem plaguing many enterprise software packages: the time-to-value ratio. Facebook’s a master of time to value: It determined that if users made seven friends within 10 days of joining the site, it had a much higher chance of retaining them. So Facebook created a tool to suggest or request friends once an account was created, establishing value right away and significantly decreasing its time-to-value ratio.

「消費化企業軟體」(CES)平台是由「通知」與「邀請」所驅動的。它們設計的目的,是讓員工們發展彼此的關係。這讓CES得以解決「time-to-value」的難題。

Functionality-driven enterprise tools often aren’t this personalized because they’re trying to serve broad audiences all at once; those that focus on analytics have even higher time-to-value ratios because they’re clunky. But users have to use those tools to complete their work, so the software designers aren’t worried about losing them. For experience-driven tools built to increase collaboration and engagement with the workplace itself, however, streamlining to facilitate connections is of the essence.

While businesses got away with choosing the software that looked best on paper, ignoring employees’ fundamental needs, employees are becoming increasingly impatient and finding ways to solve their own problems. Slack’s Slackbot serves as a good example of a workaround tool created to enable collaboration when a given solution — the company’s own — didn’t meet user needs. As employees feel increasing pressure to get more done, the chances of them going outside the normal protocol — and outside the given platforms — increase as well.

That means closer listening, a function of CES, serves an important purpose. Watching what people do, rather than asking them what they want, is a given best practice in consumer technology, but it’s never taken hold in the enterprise technology sector. CES has the ability to insert specific tools — user research, data tracking and analysis, experimentation, and communication tools like Intercom — to find out from users directly what they need. This gives CES companies an advantage to bypass endless market research and implement new features more quickly than enterprise firms can. We’ve seen CES companies like Trello, Airtable, Dropbox, and others do this repeatedly and successfully.

“Personalization is a powerful tool because it builds emotional connections between the user and the technology: This tech really gets me,” Watson says. “The expectations we’ve developed and gathered as consumers have changed, and they end up being a big driver of why this CES software is appealing. It has an opportunity to disrupt the traditional enterprise software space.”

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