Brain storming [腦力激盪]

一種創新與創意思考的工具。常見於商業/行銷規劃工作領域中。

不過,大多數人並不知道,腦力激盪有其特殊的歷史淵源與結構嚴謹的設計,而不只是泛泛的胡思亂想。儘管腦力激盪強調什麼都可以,但還是有其紀律來提昇效率。 (阿基米德的浴缸, p.117)

BBDO 創辦人奧斯本(Alex Osborn)在他一九五三年著作「應用想像力」(Applied Imagination)中,說明了腦力激盪的技巧。由於商場上的工作經驗,奧斯本感到有必要讓人們的討論方式跳脫成規,在審慎之中引進更多的創意。

principle 原則

- 數量第一:不停頓。想法丟出就繼續丟下一個想法,不要停留在方法的細節。 - 不批評:對所提出的意見都不先作任何批評。 - 多樣化:嘗試各種不同的想法,包括無釐頭的、荒謬的、對立的、不同觀點的。 - 組合與組織想法,發揮 1+1=3 的效果

method 方法

http://www.jpb.com/creative/brainstorming.php

- 定義問題範圍 - 訂出時間限制。約25分鐘。越大型的團體需要更多的時間讓所有人充分發表,如果個人的話可以限制點子的數量 - 紀錄想法 - 選出每個人都同意的,五項最好的想法 - 寫下五項評估方法優劣的標準 - 根據評估標準評分 - 最高分者勝出。但那些可行且最好的解決方案都需要被紀錄。

IDEO brainstorming rules

http://homepage.mac.com/fredchen/blogwavestudio/LH20040702231914/LHA20041005155725/index.html

- Defer Judgment / 暫緩判斷 - Encourage Wild Ideas / 鼓勵奇想 - Build on the Ideas of Others / 舉一反三 - Stay Focused on Topic / 集中主題 - One Conversation at a Time / 逐一發言 - Be Visual / 視覺化 - Go for Quantity / 以量取勝.

shut-up & write

原文 http://edwardboches.com/a-brilliant-brainstorming-technique 中譯 http://www.damndigital.com/archives/20032

“让所有的人坐在一起, 包括art, copy, strategy, mobile, tech, UX, media, social等。首先简要地给他们介绍一下你想要做的, 你希望解决的, 你需要得到回答的。 然而并不让任何一个人先发表意见。让所有人闭嘴10分钟, 将idea都写下来。如果他们没有什么想法就让他们将想到的问题和可能碰到的障碍写下来。你会十分惊奇于你收回来的, 有别于常规你们能产生的一两个“典型” idea, 你会得到来自相当广泛视角的提议 。”

Tom Kelley: 7 Secrets

  • 清楚的描繪問題 Sharpen the focus.
    Start with a well-honed statement of the problem at hand. Edgy is better than fuzzy. The best topic statements focus outward on a specific customer need or service enhancement rather than inward on some organizational goal.
  • 寫下好玩的規則 Write playful rules.
    Ideo's primary brainstorming rules are simple: “Defer judgment” and “One conversation at a time.” The firm believes in its rules so strongly that they're stenciled in 8-inch letters on conference-room walls. “If I'm the facilitator and somebody starts a critique or people start talking, I can enforce the rules without making it feel personal,” Kelley says. Other rules include, “Go for quantity,” “Be visual,” and “Encourage wild ideas.”
  • 點子的數量 Number your ideas.
    “This rule seems counterintuitive – the opposite of creativity,” Kelley says. “But numbered lists create goals to motivate participants. You can say, 'Let's try to get to 100 ideas.' Also, lists provide a reference point if you want to jump back and forth between ideas.”
  • 建立與跳躍 Build and jump.
    Most brainstorming sessions follow a power curve: They start out slowly, build to a crescendo, and then start to plateau. The best facilitators nurture the conversation in its early stages, step out of the way as the ideas start to flow, and then jump in again when energy starts to peter out. “We go for two things in a brainstorm: fluency and flexibility,” Kelley says. “Fluency is a very rapid flow of ideas, so there's never more than a moment of silence. Flexibility is approaching the same idea from different viewpoints.”
  • 打造記憶空間 Make the space remember.
    Good facilitators should also write ideas down on an accessible surface. Ideo used to hold its brainstorms in rooms wallpapered with whiteboards or butcher paper. Lately, however, the group has started using easel-sized Post-it notes. “When the facilitator tries to pull together all the ideas after the session,” Kelley says, “she can stack up nice, tidy rectangular things instead of spreading butcher paper all the way down the hall.”
  • 讓腦筋放鬆 Stretch your mental muscles.
    Brainstorming, like marathon running, should begin with warm-up exercises. Ideo studied various methods of prepping for a session. For a project on the toy industry, for example, Ideo divided the group into three teams: The first team did no preparation. The second listened to a lecture on the technology involved and read background books. The third team took a field trip to a toy store. Far and away, the toy-store team produced ideas in greater quantity and quality than the other two.
  • 看到具體的東西 Get physical.
    At Ideo, brainstorming sessions are often occasions for show-and-tell. Participants bring examples of competitors' products, objects that relate to the problem, or elegant solutions from other fields as springboards for ideas. Ideo also keeps materials on hand – blocks, foam core, tubing – to build crude models of a concept.

Joshua Johnson: 10 Tips for Effective Creative Brainstorming

http://designshack.co.uk/articles/inspiration/10-tips-for-effective-creative-brainstorming

Brainstorming can either be a creative gold mine or a time wasting disaster.

  1. 指派主持人 Assign a Moderator
    • 了解問題範疇且非宰制型的人 Who Should Be the Moderator?
      Choose someone who knows the project scope intricately and is seen as an authoritative figure. This person should not dominate conversation or even present many ideas but instead drive the conversation away from unproductive or hostile conversation and towards original thought and successful teamwork.
    • How Should the Meeting Be Managed?
      Whoever you choose to be the moderator (be it yourself or someone else) should be an outgoing, social person familiar with providing direction in a non-authoritarian manner. The conversation should be eased in different directions, not forced. Remember that you want people to feel comfortable throwing out ideas and not afraid to change the topic or say something unconventional.
  2. 有目標 Identify Goals
    • 壞目標範例: 建立最好的網站 “Create the best website ever.”
    • 好目標範例: 找出十項改善首頁設計的作法 “Identify 10 possible ways to improve the homepage user interface.”
    • 好目標的原則: smart_goals: 具體的 Specific, 可評估的 Measurable, 可實現的 Attainable, 相關的 Relevant, 有時限的 Time-Bound
  3. 設定時間限制 Set a Time Limit
  4. 寫下或畫出所有事情 Write Down and/or Sketch Everything
  5. 不要批評 Don’t Judge
  6. 擁抱荒謬事物 Embrace the Ridiculous
  7. 從亂槍打鳥到鐳射光 Start General, End Specific
  8. 尋找綜效潛力 Look for Synergy Potential
  9. 避免群體思考(共識) Avoid Group Think
  10. 採納局外人 Include an Outsider

References

Meta