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taxonomy [2010/10/18 07:02]
Charles Chen created
taxonomy [2016/10/22 20:12] (current)
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-==Taxonomy==+==Taxonomy ​/ 分類法 或 分類學 ​==
  
 * Webster 辭典定義: * Webster 辭典定義:
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 ** 是一分類系統,特別指動物與植物的分門別類。Classification,​ especially of animals and plants into phyla, species, etc.” ** 是一分類系統,特別指動物與植物的分門別類。Classification,​ especially of animals and plants into phyla, species, etc.”
  
 +* Wikipedia 定義(2010-10)
 +** 分類學: 一種分類的科學與實務。 Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word finds its roots in the Greek τάξις, taxis (meaning '​order'​ or '​arrangement'​) and νόμος, nomos (meaning '​law'​ or '​science'​). Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon).
 +** 分類法: 一種特定的分類法或分類系統。這種分類法依階層架構排列,通常類別間具有「上-下位階」的關係,或稱為「概括-具體關係」、「父-子關係」等。上位類別的屬性會繼承到下位的類別。 In addition, the word is also used as a count noun: a taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular classification ("the taxonomy of ..."), arranged in a hierarchical structure. Typically this is organized by supertype-subtype relationships,​ also called generalization-specialization relationships,​ or less formally, parent-child relationships. In such an inheritance relationship,​ the subtype by definition has the same properties, behaviors, and constraints as the supertype plus one or more additional properties, behaviors, or constraints. For example: car is a subtype of vehicle, so any car is also a vehicle, but not every vehicle is a car. Therefore a type needs to satisfy more constraints to be a car than to be a vehicle. Another example: any shirt is also a piece of clothing, but not every piece of clothing is a shirt. Hence, a type must satisfy more parameters to be a shirt than to be a piece of clothing