Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

knowledge_organization [2016/10/23 04:12] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +==Knowledge Organization [知識組織]
  
 +Hjorland (2008(([[:​study:​Hjorland,​ B. (2008). What is Knowledge Organization (KO)]]? Knowledge Organization. International Journal devoted to Concept Theory, Classification,​ Indexing and Knowledge Representation,​ 35(2/3), 86-101.))) 認為對於知識組織的完整探討,需要區分狹義與廣義的知識組織。狹義的知識組織指的是人類製作各種知識組織製品的活動,包含**知識組織系統(Knowledge organization system, KOS)**與**知識組織過程(Knowledge organization process, KOP)**。廣義的知識組織即指社會中人類為了知識工作所作的各種社會分級與分工,例如學科區分,媒體傳播的社會組織與機構,知識的生產與刊布的產業與過程分工,等等。
 +
 +以書籍--此一人類所熟悉的知識載體單位--為例,其知識組織並不僅僅是圖書分類法的應用部份而已,也包含了書中為了讀者需求所製作的各種目次與索引結構,以及延伸到為了讓書籍中的知識能夠被傳播與利用,所進行的語義標記與編制活動,以及協助這類知識活動所建構的分工與協作體系。
 +
 +=== KOS
 +
 +Hjorland 的定義: 表徵知識結構的語意工具,包含各種學科界分與社會分工。
 +
 +> 知識組織系統(KOS)是一個普遍通用的詞彙,意指有組織的闡釋知識結構的工具,也就是"​語義工具"​。由廣義看來,知識組織系統可以是圖書館、百科全書、學科領域或社會中的分工組織。(Hjorland) \\ <fs 30%>​Knowledge organization systems (KOS) is a general term referring to, among other things, the tools that present the organized interpretation of knowledge structures. This meaning of the term correspond to "​semantic tools"​. In a broader way KOS may be understood also as, for example, libraries, encyclopedias,​ disciplines and the social division of labor in society. </fs> ((http://​www.iva.dk/​bh/​lifeboat_ko/​CONCEPTS/​knowledge_organization_systems.htm))
 +
 +Hodge(2000)的定義 (廣為數位圖書館/​數位典藏研究者所採用的):​ 一種用來組織資訊的分類基模。
 +
 +> 知識組織系統一詞,是指各種的組織資訊與進行知識管理的基模。知識組織系統,包括了一般性組織用途的分類法與分類系統,更進一步的主題標題表,統一各種專有詞彙的權威檔。知識組織系統也包含高度結構化的詞彙表,如索引典,與比較不傳統的語意網絡與知識本體集。因為知識組織系統是組織資訊的機制,因此它們是所有圖書館、博物館與文獻館的核心。\\ <fs 30%>​“The term knowledge organization systems is intended to encompass all types of schemes for organizing information and promoting knowledge management. Knowledge organization systems include classification and categorization schemes that organize materials at a general level, subject headings that provide more detailed access, and authority files that control variant versions of key information such as geographic names and personal names. Knowledge organization systems also include highly structured vocabularies,​ such as thesauri, and less traditional schemes, such as semantic networks and ontologies. Because knowledge organization systems are mechanisms for organizing information,​ they are at the heart of every library, museum, and archive. “ (Hodge, 2000).</​fs>​
 +
 +Hodge(2000)將具體的知識組織歸類為三種:​
 +* 詞彙清單 Term Lists
 +** 權威檔 Authority files
 +** 詞彙表/​術語表 Glossaries
 +** 字詞典 Dictionaries
 +** 地名典 Gazetteers
 +* 分類表與類別 Classifications and Categories
 +** 主題標題表 Subject headings
 +** 分類法(人為的分類法,如圖書分類、職業分類) Classification schemes
 +** 分類法(自然科學領域的,如生物分類) Taxonomies
 +** 分類法(非專業的,如音樂行的CD分類) Categorization Schemes.
 +* 詞彙關聯清單 Relationship Lists
 +** 索引典 Thesauri
 +** 語意網絡 Semantic networks
 +** 知識本體 Ontologies
 +
 +Hodge 定義的、能被數位圖書館所利用的 KOS ,都具有以下共同特徵;
 +* KOS代表藏品世界中物件的一種特定觀點 \\ The KOS imposes a particular view of the world on a collection and the items in it.
 +* 同一個物件可以透過不同的KOS描繪不同的特徵 \\ The same entity can be characterized in different ways, depending on the KOS that is used.
 +* KOS中所描繪概念,與真實世界中的物件,必須有充分的共通性。KOS中的概念必須能關連到相關的物件,同樣的使用者也必須能將自己的需求表徵為KOS的概念。 \\ There must be sufficient commonality between the concept expressed in a KOS and the real-world object to which that concept refers that a knowledgeable person could apply the system with reasonable reliability. Likewise, a person seeking relevant material by using a KOS must be able to connect his or her concept with its representation in the system. “(Hodge, 2000)
 +
 +Hjorland 認為 Hodge所定義的KOS 只是一部分,而還有其他更廣範圍的KOS,如
 +
 +* 書目與書目指南 bibliographies & bibliographical guides
 +* 觀念體系與理論 conceptual systems & theories
 +* 文化與次文化(正典) cultures & subcultures (with canons)
 +* 學科、社會中的分工 disciplines,​ branches and the social division of labor in society
 +* 百科全書與手冊 encyclopedias & handbooks
 +* 媒體、語言與符號系統 media, languages & symbolic systems
 +* 不同領域的系統模型 models of actors, systems and processes in different domains (a la UNISIST)
 +etc.
 +
 +
 +
 +=== KOP
 +=== 知識分類:​ 學術分類與本體論分類
 +
 +^ 學術分類 ^ 本體論分類 ^
 +| 柏拉圖與亞里斯多德([[:​people:​Plato]] & [[:​people:​Aristotle]]) | 亞里斯多德 範疇論 |
 +|  | 樸爾斐利知識之樹([[:​people:​Porphyry]]'​s Tree of knowledge), 232-302AD |
 +| [[:​people:​Muhammade-Farabi]],​ 10th |  |
 +| [[:​people:​Ibn Sina]], 10th |  |
 +|  | [[:​people:​Roger Bacon]]'​s Tree of Knowledge, 1266 |
 +| [[:​people:​Francis Bacon]], 1605 |  |
 +| [[:​people:​Auguste Comte]], 1830 |  |
 +| [[:​people:​Herbert Spencer]], 1864] |  |
 +
 +中國的知識分類
 +
 +^ 學術分類 ^ 本體論分類 ^
 +| 孔子 四科 |  |
 +| 墨家 (墨學分科?​((張純一1923墨學分科:​ 《墨学分科》以西方近代学科分类排列比附墨家学说,​分门别类地归结《墨子》与西方近代科学知识的相似处。郑杰文,20世紀墨學研究史,頁133))) |  |
 +| 司馬談 論六家要旨 |  |
 +| 程頤 |  |
 +
 +學術分類
 +* 柏拉圖 Plato: 能見(Visible),​ 領悟(Intelligible)(何1990:​82)
 +* 亞里斯多德 Aristotle: 理論知識(數學哲學物理),​ 實用知識(經濟政治法律權術生產藝術)(何1990:​82)
 +* 樸爾斐利知識之樹 Porphyry'​s Tree of knowledge
 +* Muhammade-Farabi
 +* Ibn Sina
 +* Roger Bacon
 +* Francis Bacon
 +* Auguste Comte
 +* Herbert Spencer
 +
 +==Meta/​Backlinks
 +{{page>:​infobox:​lis}}
 +{{backlinks>​.}}
 +{{tag>​library_science lis}}