Genres of organizational communication / Yates & Orlikowski (1992)

Citation - Yates, J., & Orlikowski, W. J. (1992). Genres of Organizational Communication: A Structurational Approach to Studying Communication and Media. The Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 299-326.

Keyword - genre, structuration, organization communication

摘要: 由於傳播是鑲嵌於社會中,而不是視為獨立的理性行動。根據修辭學理論與結構化理論,作者認為組織溝通中的文類,能作為一種有用的研究概念。文類(如,備忘錄、計劃書、會議)是指一種被類型化的溝通行動。這類行動具有相似的語句與形式、相似的回應週期情境。 文類是隨著時間的進行,在機構性實踐與個人行動的修辭性的互動中發展而成。 文類與傳播媒體不同,儘管有時候媒體關係到文類的形式,且新媒體可能引發文類的演化。 在說明文類的概念之後,此文說明文類如何發現既有媒體研究的限制,並呈現文類在解釋歷史性案例的有用性,與對未來研究的影響。

Drawing on rhetorical theory and structuration, this article proposes genres of organizational communication as a concept useful for studying communication as embedded in social process rather than as the result of isolated rational actions. Genres (e.g., the memo, the proposal, and the meeting) are typified communicative actions characterized by similar substance and form and taken in response to recurrent situations. These genres evolve over time in reciprocal interaction between institutionalized practices and individual human actions. They are distinct from communication media, though media may play a role in genre form, and the introduction of new media may occasion genre evolution. After the genre concept is developed, the article shows how it addresses existing limitations in research on media, demonstrates its usefulness in an extended historical example, and draws implications for future research.

  • 本文視文類為 Giddens 結構化理論中的社會規則。
    “These genres can be viewed as social institutions that both shape and are shaped by individuals' communicative actions.”(p.300)

Genre 文類

genre,

  • 傳統文學中的文類:
    • 在傳統文學中,「文類」是基於主題與形式的類別,如悲劇、喜劇、小說、史詩等
      In traditional literary scholarship (e.g., Holman, 1972), the term genre was typically and loosely defined to mean a classification based on form and topic, such as a tragedy, a comedy, the novel, and the epic.(p.300)
    • 在語藝學中,文類的定義被區分的更細,包含了形式、主題、聽眾、情境等。
  • Bitzer (1968:8)的語藝情境(Rhetorical situation)包含了三種要素:
    composed of three critical elements: an exigence (something needing to be done), an audience (who must be affected or influenced), and constraints (“persons, events, objects, and relations which are parts of the situation because they have the power to constrain decision and action needed to modify the exigence”).
    • exigence
      目的(某事需要被完成)
    • an audience
      聽者(被傳達或被影響的)
    • constraints
      限制(構成情境的:人物、事件、對象、關係)
  • 語藝文類(Rhetorical genre),Miller
    • Simons (1978: 42), for example, defined rhetorical genre as “a distinctive and recurring pattern of similarly constrained rhetorical practices,” 獨特且經常性的類似修辭工作。
    • Harrell and Linkugel (1978: 263-264) argued that “rhetorical genres stem from organizing principles found in recurring situations that generate discourse characterized by a family of common factors.”
    • Miller (1984: 159) identified genres “as typified rhetorical actions based in recurrent situations.”
      • 修改 Bitzer 的語藝情境,擴張目的的定義,認為不是主觀(subjective)的也不是客觀(objective),而是一種社會知識:一種物體、事件、偏好、與目的的共同建構;不只是將它們連結在一起,也創造了他們:一種具體化的社會需求。為了回應這種具體化的社會需求,人們訂定各種類型的語藝文類活動。
        but rather “a form of social knowledge – a mutual construing of objects, events, interests, and purposes that not only links them but also makes them what they are: an objectified social need.” In response to this objectified social need, humans enact typical rhetorical practices or genres characterized by patterns of form and substance.

組織傳播文類

  • 定義
    • [組織傳播文類是]…各種類型的組織傳播實踐,[組織傳播文類]能夠為組織傳播,帶來互動且社會嵌入的新觀點。
      “can be applied to a wide range of typical communicative practices occurring in organizations, and it provides a new perspective on organizational communication that is both interactive and socially embedded.”(p.301)
    • 組織傳播文類(如,推薦信或提案書)是一種類型化傳播行動,由周期性情境所形成。
      A genre of organizational communication (e.g., a recommendation letter or a proposal) is a typified communicative action invoked in response to a recurrent situation.
  • 屬性
    • 周期性情境(recurrent situation)或社會定義需求,包含活動的歷史與本質、社會關係、組織內的傳播媒體。
      The recurrent situation or socially defined need includes the history and nature of established practices, social relations, and communication media within organizations (e.g., a request for a recommendation letter assumes the existence of employment procedures that include the evaluation and documentation of prior performance; a request for a proposal is premised on a system for conducting and supporting research).(p.301)
    • 文類由內涵(substance)與形式(form)所構成 genre is characterized by similar substance and form.
      • 內涵(substance): 指社會動機、主題類型、在傳播中被傳達的主旨(如,正評或負評、對受評人的性格說明、對計畫的建議)
        refers to the social motives, themes, and topics being expressed in the communication (e.g., the positive or negative recommendation and the supporting characteristics of the recommendee; the proposing of the project including its rationale and design).(p.301)
      • 形式(form): 指可觀察的文字傳播物質(如,書信內的敬語,計畫書的標準章節)
        refers to the observable physical and linguistic features of the communication (e.g., inside address and salutation of a letter; standard sections of a proposal).(p.301)
        • 三種形式特徵:(a)結構特徵 structural features; (b)傳播媒材 communication medium; ©語言或符號系統 language or symbol system;
  • 範例:會議
  • Giddens: 根據Giddens的結構化理論,文類也是一種社會規則。

Production, Reproduction, and Change Over Time

文類的生產、再生產與歷時演變

COMMUNICATION MEDIA AND ORGANIZATIONAL GENRES

傳播媒體與組織文類:傳播媒體先前研究有兩種主流

  • Research on media choice: 社會情境因素影響溝通媒體選擇
  • Research on media consequences: 媒體使用影響社會

Memo Genre 備忘錄文類的興起:歷史研究

  • business correspondence 商務函電
    • mid 1800s: business letter , 企業外部與內部都使用商業書信
    • 1870 - 1920: 系統化管理,內部溝通由口語轉為傾向書面文件。打字機。專業打字員。吊掛檔案夾系統(vertical filing)。單行文件名稱(single subject and requiring subject lines to aid file clerks)。
    • 1920 - 1970
    • 1970 - 1990

activity theory

activity theory

  • 認為使用者中心的系統設計,仍帶有設計救贖者的權力態度。認為應該回歸使用者在情境中的活動,才能設計出讓使用者滿意的系統。

Yates, Three levels of scope with corresponding HCI domain and activity theory terms (based on Spinuzzi 2002e, 8; and Kuutti & Bannon 1993, 266)

level HCI research HCI background theory Activity theory
macroscopic contextual interaction social contexts, enriched information processing, cognitive psychology activity (cultural-histroical, unconscious)
mesoscopic conceptual interaction cognitive psychology, mental model action (goal-directed, conscious)
microscopic physical/technical interaction psychophysiology operation (habitual, unconscious)

Mediation: Artifacts: Genre:

mediating artifacts: material artifacts, mediated this work with maps, reports, and other mediating artifacts. Mediation: Vygotsky, 人類透過外部刺激,由外部控制其行為。

Miller (1984) 新Genre 理論:在不斷重複發生情境中,產生的規律性。

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