A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory / Wilson(2006)

Citation - Wilson, T. D. (2006). A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory. Information Research, 11(4), 11-14.

Keyword - Activity theory

Wilson 簡述 Activity Theory 的源流。前面介紹俄羅斯理論的源流很清楚,把Rubinshtein也拉進來是他處未見的。但之後的段落看起來很混淆,我不理解其介紹相關研究的順序: 先介紹近的(Spasser, 1999, 為何? 因為在WebOfScience找得到嗎?)在介紹遠的(Hjorland, 1997),更別說ARIST當時有幾篇文章也從STS, HCI提到AT了。AT 的版本也是,先 Bedny (2003)然後再 Engestrom(1987),而且稱前者所描繪的理論圖示為「更基本且更接近原創者」(??),有許多引用原文的段落,看起來都是對的,但比起Engestorm自己或 Nardi等為HCI對AT的簡介,此文雖晚出但似乎沒有更容易懂。後段 Wilson 自己有提到採用 AT之後對所進行資訊尋求行為研究的影響,以及洞見的增加。但我自己認為這些概念之前一些學者也不是沒有提(如 Hjorland),歸功AT難道只是因為AT有圖但其他沒有?

而且最後又融合 Bedny 與 Engestrom 的 AT 圖,提出了一種結合兩種的模型… Wilson真的很喜歡畫圖啊。我認為這張圖是 Wilson 自己當時對 AT的理解。

Abs.

活動理論是蘇聯馬克思版本的心理學理論,與西方心理學大異其趣。已應用在教育、HCI研究領域中。
Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research.

作者論點:活動理論中的幾個關鍵概念:動機、目標、活動、工具、對象、產出、規則、社群與分工,都能作為資訊行為研究中,探索一些影響資訊行為脈絡議題的基礎。也能助於研究設計與分析。
Argument. The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are all directly applicable to the conduct of information behaviour research. An activity-theoretical approach to information behaviour research would provide a sound basis for the elaboration of contextual issues, for the discovering of organizational and other contradictions that affect information behaviour. It may be used to aid the design and analysis of investigations.

進一步探討:活動理論的基本構想,在於調和不同觀點。如:系統觀點與活動程序觀點。本文進一步繪製程序觀點的圖示。
Elaboration. The basic ideas of activity theory are outlined and an attempt is made to harmonize different perspectives. A contrast is made between an activity system perspective and an activity process perspective and a diagrammatic representation of the process perspective is offered.

活動理論並不是一種預測性理論,而是一種結合不同理論觀點的概念架構。通常,活動理論建議採用數種不同資料收集的方法,時間應該有足夠的長度以探究各種脈絡議題。活動理論並不只提供了有用的概念架構,也是一套研究者間的語彙,以及相關學科間的文獻發展主體。
Conclusion. Activity theory is not a predictive theory but a conceptual framework within which different theoretical perspectives may be employed. Typically, it is suggested that several methods of data collection should be employed and that the time frame for investigation should be long enough for the full range of contextual issues to emerge. Activity theory offers not only a useful conceptual framework, but also a coherent terminology to be shared by researchers, and a rapidly developing body of literature in associated disciplines.

Content

源流:

  • Vygotsky(1896-1934),語言學習與使用的心理學研究。提出對抗西方行為心理學的文史心理學(cultural-historical psychology)。
  • Alexander Luria (1902-1977), Vygotsky 的學生與同事, Vygotsky 的理論與研究的主要繼承者與詮釋者。尤其是著重將語言作為調解行為中「工具的工具」(with particular respect to the use of language as the 'tool of tools' in the mediation of behaviour)。
  • Alexei Leont'ev(1904-1979), Vygotsky 的學生與同事。跳脫 Vygotsky,發展一般活動理論(general activity theory)。
  • Sergei Leonidovich Rubinshtein(1889-1960): 不在 Vygotsky 圈子,但也關注一般活動中語言所扮演的角色。對活動理論主要的貢獻是,人類心智發展是透過活動而來,主張人的行為會同時改變外在世界與行動者本身。

活動(activity)的定義

Leont'ev defines 'activity' as those processes 'that realise a person's actual life in the objective world by which he is surrounded, his social being in all the richness and variety of its forms' (Leont'ev 1977). Thus, society, or 'community' as it is expressed in later activity theory writing, is central to Leont'ev's concept of activity.

Yrjö Engeström 教育與應用

  • 早期在芬蘭從事教育改革
  • 在工作環境的教育 (Engeström 1994, 2000, 2001)
  • 技術的應用 (Mwanza & Engeström 2005)

HCI 與 資訊系統研究

  • Bødker 1989; Kuutti 1991; Kaptelinin 1994; Nardi 1996a; Kaptelinin et al. 1999; Ditsa 2003.
  • 兩種AT的模型: Engestrom 與 Bedny (2000) (繼承 Rubinshtein, 1957)

資訊科學對AT的引入較慢,到本文發表時,activity theory AND information science' in the Web of Science 只有一篇,Spasser (1999)。LISA 有 18篇,但都是教育與資訊傳播科技的應用,無關資訊科學。

Spasser:

  • (1999) AT適合用於資訊科學,特別關於人與電腦互動方面。
  • (2002) 就社會實在論(social realism, Hjorland 1997)基礎,應用AT分析。

Hjorland

  • (1997)

Models

Bedny (2003)

  • Subject: 主體: 進行活動的人或團體(person or group of persons engaged in the activity)
  • Object: 目標: 受先決目的所引導的行動目標(acting upon an object in ways directed by a predetermined goal),
  • Tools: using tools in the course of the activity, 使用工具以進行活動,可以是有形體的物品或無形的規則。
  • Result: 活動所產生的結果。不一定等同於意圖的目的。which has some result (not always directly satisfying the intended goal).

1)

Engestorm (1987)

Note

1)
Wilson 雖然認為圖中沒有'motive',但'goal' is closely associated with the concept of 'motive', 並引用 Leont'ev 1977 的文句作為佐證。但我不確定 Wilson 在此特別在意 motive 沒有出現在圖的用意為何? 是他認為應該要出現嗎? Leont'ev 不就有另一張圖顯示 motive, goal, condition 的關係, 為何 Wilson 不在意 condition 沒有在圖中?