Human information behavior: Integrating diverse approaches and information use / Spink & Cole(2006)

Citation - Spink, A., & Cole, C. (2006). Human information behavior: Integrating diverse approaches and information use. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(1), 25-35.

Keyword - information_behavior

  • 3 interdisciplinary approaches to human seeking information
    • the everyday life information seeking–sense-making approach, (ELIS)
    • the information foraging approach (Pirolli and Card, 1999)Optimal foraging theory (OFT)
    • the problem–solution perspective on information seeking approach (problem-need-seek)
  • Information use (? information use is the behavior of using information ??)
  • Modular Architecture (another sense-making??)
Approach Process Start State Construction Goal State Input-Output
Problem Solving Information Seeking, Searching or Browsing Gap, ASK Information Need Stages Uncertainty Relevance Problem State Cognitive State Data-Information
Foraging Information Foraging Patches, Cues Internal External Decision State Person-Environment Interaction (Cues, Diet Enrichment) Stable States that Maximize Gains of Valuable Information Per Unit Cost Knowledge-Knowledge
Everyday Life Information Seeking (ELIS) Sensemaking Small Worlds Insider-Outsider Intra-Group Information Processing Mastery of Life Data-Knowledge
Modular Thinking Information Use Pre-Conscious Data Foraging Modular Architecture Metaphor Instantiation Knowledge-Base Modification (adaptation) -Survival Data-knowledge

Optimal foraging theory

The human information forager, similarly, uses what Pirolli and Card call “the proximal perception of information scent” to assess profitability of an information source in relation to other potential sources (Pirolli & Card, 1999).(p.28)
資訊狩獵者運用「資訊氣味的近端知覺」以評估不同資訊來源間的有利性。


If the scent is strong, the information forager can make the correct choice; if there is no scent, the forager will have to perform a “random walk” through the environment. The forager’s perception of which direction offers the optimal information source or patch is changed by sniffing for scent activities; so the forager is constantly adapting decision making and direction—in the Pirolli and Card ACT-IF model, this is called adaptive control of thought in information foraging (ACT-IF). (p.28)
有利則選擇方向,無利則隨意逛逛。狩獵者隨時在調整方向的決策。


business technology analyst, the analyst was a “sit-and-wait” information forager: * diet enrichment and construction activities. 少量精美與建構活動 * scent-following activities. 追尋氣味活動

Note