The implications of program genres for the design of social television systems / Geerts, Cesar & Bulterman (2008)

Citation - Geerts, D., Cesar, P., & Bulterman, D. (2008). The implications of program genres for the design of social television systems. Paper presented at the 1st international conference on Designing interactive user experiences for TV and video.

Keyword - interactive TV, Television Study

Abstract

  • 背景/動機:本研究,探討電視文類在社會互動電視系統(social iTV)中所扮演的角色。
    In this paper, we look at how television genres can play a role in the use of social interactive television systems (social iTV).
  • 假定:社會互動電視系統: 能夠在不同裝置間接收與傳送影音片段的系統。
  • 方法/資料:使用者研究。Device: Apple iPod touch, Nokia N770, Samsung Q1 ultra-mobile PC (Ambulant Annotator).
    • 受訪者: 比利時 Belgium
  • 研究問題:基於使用者研究,我們 探討 哪一種文類是在看電視時更想要討論的,哪一些是看後想要討論的,哪一些是會以不同設備傳送給他人的。
    Based on a user study of a system for sending and receiving enriched video fragments to and from a range of devices, we discuss which genres are preferred for talking while watching, talking about after watching and for sending to users with different devices.
  • 發現: The results show that
    • 觀眾在看電視的同時最常討論的: 新聞、通俗連續劇、問答節目與運動節目。news, soap, quiz and sport are genres during which our participants talk most while watching and are thus suitable for synchronous social iTV systems.
    • 非即時的電影、新聞、紀錄片與音樂節目,是潛在受歡迎的文類。 For asynchronous social iTV systems film, news, documentaries and music programs are potentially popular genres.
    • 某些文類的情節結構(plot structure)影響人們會不會在看電視的時候討論,以及將影片片段送給何種裝置。 The plot structure of certain genres influences if people are inclined to talk while watching or not, and to which device they would send a video fragment.
    • 也探討了這對社會互動電視設計的影響與評估結果。 We also discuss how this impacts the design and evaluation of social iTV systems.

相關研究與文獻

電視行為

看電視作為一種社會互動行為 (Lull, 1980)1)

電視文類對社會電視媒體使用行為的影響 [18] Harboe, G., Massey, N., Metcalf, C., Wheatley, D., and Romano, G. 2008. The uses of social television. ACM Computers in Entertainment (CIE), Volume 6 Issue 1

收視設備的多元性

收視行為的設備選擇

  • 行動轉向,多媒體消費者變得越來越願意在行動中收看
    • It is clear that multimedia consumers are becoming mobile [26]. [26] Mate, S., Chandra, U., and Curcio, I.D.D., 2006. Movablemultimedia: session mobility in ubiquitous computing ecosystem, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia.
    • O'Hara et al. [27] report that users found it frustrating to get video material in mobile devices and conclude that a better integration among devices is needed.[27] O'Hara, K., Mitchell, A. S., and Vorbau, A., 2007. Consuming video on mobile devices, In Proceedings of CHI2007, 857-866.
  • 以使用者活動為中心,在多重設備中轉移 ‘our devices should collaborate to support a notion of user-centric activities that span multiple devices’ [11] Dearman, D., and Pierce, J.S. 2008. It's on my other computer!: computing with multiple devices, In Proceedings of CHI, 767-776.
  • 與傳統觀點相反(在單一裝置–互動電視上從事社會性互動), Cardoso 主張應該將許多裝置互連的收視體驗(networked TV)[5] Cardoso, Gustavo, 2006. The Media in the Network Society: Browsing, News, Filters and Citizenship, Lisboa, Portugal. CIES – Centre for Research and Studies in Sociology

互動電視設計

建立社會互動電視系統 [19] Harrison, C., Amento, B., 2007. CollaboraTV: Using asynchronous communication to make TV social again, In Adjunct Proceedings of EuroITV2007, 218-222. [8] Cesar, P., Bulterman, D.C.A., and Jansen, A.J., 2007. Social Sharing of Television Content: An Architecture. In Proceedings of ISM2007 (Workshops), 145-150.

觀眾的影視分享行為與系統設計

影視分享行為

[17] Gill, P., Arlitt, M., Li, Z., and Mahanti, A. 2007. Youtube traffic characterization: a view from the edge. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on internet Measurement. ACM, New York, NY, 15-28.

影視分享系統

影視分享系統(Video sharing systems) 可分為四種(p.71-2)

  • 線上影視分享 online video sharing.
    (e.g., Youtube, Yahoo! Video, Facebook)(可分為UGC與Social-Platform)
  • 網路電視 WebTV. \\(e.g., Joost, Tribler. Internet-based TV)
  • 互動電視 interactive television (AT&T CollaboraTV, Motorola SocialTV, Alcatel AmigoTV)(Media-based TV)
  • 多媒體即時訊息 enriched instant messaging. (e.g., Microsoft Messenger TV, Yahoo! Zync!)

系統特定功能的研究 比較 voice chat & text chat [16]

手持裝置的分享行為研究

  • [35], [23], [22].
  • Taylor e.a. [35] observed the social norms around gift-giving and the demand of reciprocity with mobile phones.
  • Another study categorized the uses of photo sharing in two dimensions: social/individual and functional/affective [23]. The results indicate that affective usage was the most predominant.
  • House et al. [22] provide a similar categorization: creating and maintaining social relationships, personal and group memory, self expression, self presentation, and functional. In most of the cases, the usage was mainly incidental and not a planned activity.

第二屏研究

  • 第二屏研究:綜合 [6] Cesar, P., Bulterman, D., & Jansen, A. (2008). Usages of the secondary screen in an interactive television environment: Control, enrich, share, and transfer television content. Paper presented at the 6th European conference on Changing Television Environments.
  • 遙控器螢幕的使用 [1] Bernhaupt, R., Obrist, M., Weiss, A., Beck, E., and Tscheligi, M. 2007. Trends in the living room and beyond. In Proceedings of EuroITV, 146-155.
  • 看電視同時用筆電 [31] Seager, W., Knoche, H., and Sasse, M.2007. TV-centricity - requirements gathering for triple play services. In Adjunct Proceedings of EuroITV, 274-278.
  • 利用第二屏進行電視內容選擇的介面使用性研究
    • [28] Park, J., Blythe, M., Monk, A., and Grayson, D. 2006. Sharable digital TV: relating ethnography to design through unuseless product suggestions. In extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, 119-1204.
    • [10] Cruickshank, L., Tsekleves, E., Whitham, R., Hill, A., and Kondo, K. 2007. Making interactive TV easier to use: Interface design for a second screen approach. The Design Journal 10(3).
  • 手機作為互動電視的第二屏
    • 互動電視利用手機作為雙螢幕的數位學習 [14] Fallahkhair, S., Pemberton, L., and Griffiths, R. 2005. Dual device user interface design for ubiquitous language learning: Mobile phone and interactive television (iTV). In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, 85-92.
  • 使用行動設備(手機)作為觀看影視的設備
    • [24]
    • Södergård [34] concludes that people who watch television on mobile devices do this for short periods of time, and the main advantage was considered to be the “anytime, anywhere availability”.
    • Repo et. al [29] hint at the importance of the private experience by using a mobile phone to watch videos.
    • O’Hara et al. provide an extensive study on how and why video material is consumed in mobile devices [27].

電視文類的社會力

Sociability of television genres 電視研究(Television studies)、文類研究(Genre studies)、觀眾接受研究(Audience reception studies)。

電視文類研究的傳統。什麼構成了文類,某些節目如何被歸為某類,觀眾如何利用文類以理解並享受電視節目。 Bignell, J., 2003. An Introduction to Television Studies. New York: Routledge.

In these audience studies the focus is usually more on social interaction around one specific program or genre (such as soap opera), rather than a systematic analysis of the different genres that stimulate conversation or not, whether during the program itself, or afterwards [15].

文類與電視觀眾行為研究

  • [36] 分析家人與友人針對一真人實境秀的對話 Tovares for example analyzed conversations among family members and friends about ‘Who Wants to Marry a Millionaire’, a reality show [36]Tovares, Alla V. 2006. Public medium, private talk: Gossip about a TV show as 'quotidian hermeneutics'. In: Text & Talk 2006, 26(4/5), 463-491.
  • [20] 比較觀眾對不同電視文類的不同注意風格 An interesting study that does compare several genres is [20], but it looks at differences in attention style with regards to different genres, and not at communication patterns. [20] Hawkins, R.P., Pingree, S., Hitchon, J., Radler, B., Gorham, B., Kahlor, L., Gilligan, E., Serlin, R.C., Schmidt, T., Kannaovakun, P., and Kolbeins, H. 2005. What produces television attention and attention style?: Genre, situation, person, and media perceptions as predictors. Human Communication Research. 31, 162-187
  • [21] 比較觀眾,在觀看不同電視文類時的傳播模式 The most comprehensive study we have found that studies communication patterns while watching television is [21], but also here several separate genres are singled out, and are not systematically compared. [21] Holly, W., Püschel, U., and Bergmann, J. (eds.) 2001. Der sprechende Zuschauer. Wie wir uns Fernsehen kommunikativ aneignen. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.

社會互動電視收視行為研究中發現的文類議題

  • 若在一群人中看電視,選擇大場面爆破、反覆或是通俗導向的內容,會被認為是較社會化的。Ducheneaut e.a. [12] asked their participants in an experiment where they watched television over a distance, what kinds of television programs they watched in groups. Genres with bursty rhythms, redundant content or people-centered content were considered as the most sociable.
  • 新聞與生活類型的節目內容較能鼓勵人們在社群討論,紀錄片與Youtube的使用者自製內容則相對較低 Schatz e.a. [30] studied a social interactive television system and observed and explicitly asked participants about the chat suitability of certain television genres. They observed that news and lifestyle TV significantly encouraged communication activity, which was also reflected in the ratings of chat suitability of both genres by their participants. Documentaries and user generated content from YouTube was rated rather low, to the surprise of the authors who assumed that personally created content might be more suited for social interaction.

研究設計

測試研究設計與資料收集

  • 12組受測者,每組2-5彼此認識的人:親人、朋友或混合。總計36位參與者。年齡14歲-72歲,中位數是23歲。13位男性,23位女性。職業包含學生、家庭主婦、公務員、教師。
  • 地點在設定好的模擬客廳。每個場次測試一組,時間最少二小時。錄音錄影。
  • 測試分為四部分:(1)系統解釋與教學,(2)預設測試,(3)分組測試,(4)小組訪談。在二、三部分後,有問卷發給個別參與者填回。
  • 使用者研究流程
    • 歡迎參與者後,請他們簽署文件,作今天場次流程的簡介。
    • 第一部分:由於此研究不探討系統介面的使用性問題,因此第一部分先進行系統解釋與教學。
    • 第二部分:瀏覽電視裡面有哪些內容,選擇想要分享給他人的內容,是否要剪接或註記,將內容寄送給特定的人。此階段大約用了20-30分鐘。第二部份後有問卷,對系統作反映與評估。
    • 第三部分:每組又分為兩小組,一組留在模擬客廳內,繼續作第二部分的任務,另一組到另一個房間當作接收方,體驗不同接收內容格式(PC, TV, SMS, Blog)。第三部份後也有問卷,包含測試本身,以及個人的每日媒體使用行為。
    • 第四部份,20分鐘的小組訪談。寄送內容片段的原因,對設備的偏好。
    • 結尾,贈送禮物。

分析

  • 質性分析,研究過程的觀察錄影與參與者的回答都經過編碼,以親和圖(affinity diagram)歸類。
  • 兩組以上有提到的才會列入考慮。
  • 由研究者給予權重,並詮釋研究結果。

研究結果與發現

接收影視片段的設備偏好

(透過測後問卷評分得到的結果,樣本數13。我認為這裡的量化描述統計沒有太大的意義。但對質性分析後關於偏好因素的探討是有意義的。)

比較的設備: mobile phone, e-mail, blog, television

  • 普遍不喜歡用Blog
  • Email 較明顯的傾向偏好
  • Mobile phone, TV 愛不愛都有

影響偏好的因素: 影視片段長度(clip length)、內容品質(content quality)、立即性(immediary)、隱私性(privacy)

長度 內容品質 立即性 隱私性
Mobile Phone
E-mail(PC)
TV

電視文類與討論/分享行為

(一樣,我認為這裡的量化描述統計沒有太大意義。出現無法解釋的矛盾結果,如新聞類型節目,是最少聊天的第二名,又是最常聊天的第一名。而且,此處的結果是用測後問卷執行的,分類是採用歐洲廣電聯盟的節目分類法(EBU System of Classification of RTV Programmes)中18類。最可惜的是,並沒有採用實驗中的質性分析結果。)

那些節目類型在看的時候最少聊天: Film > News > Drama Series > Documentary > Standup Comedy > News Magazine

那些節目類型在看的時候最常聊天: News > Soap > Quiz > Sports > Reality Show > Talk Show

那些節目類型看了後最多心得討論: Film > News > Soap > Sports > News Magazine > Comedy Series

那些節目類型最想要分享: News > Film > Documentary > Music > News Magazine > Standup Comedy > Soap > Sports > Animation films > Comedy Series

Note

file link - Google Schloar, XXC

1)
Lull, J. (1980). The social uses of television. Human communication research, 6(3), 197-209.