Mind over machine (Dreyfus, Dreyfus & Athanasiou, 1986)

Citation - Dreyfus, H. L., Dreyfus, S. E., & Athanasiou, T. (1986). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. New York: The Free Press.

Keyword - AI, Knowledge, knowledge management

技巧習得的五個階段

Five stages of skill acquisition

“As human beings acquires a skill through instruction and experience, they do not appear to leap from rule-guided 'knowing that' to experience-based know-how.” (p.19)
學習,並非藉由教材就能由生手立刻變為專家

“As we examine in detail how novice, if he possesses innate ability and has the opportunity to acquire sufficient experience, gradually becomes an expert, we shall focus on the most common kind of problem area, sometimes called 'unstructured'. Such areas contain a potentially unlimited number of possibly relevant facts and features, and the way those elements interrelate and determine other events is unclear. Management, nursing, economic forecasting, teaching, and all social interactions fall into that very large class…. A high level of skill in any unstructured problem area seems to acquire considerable concrete experience with real situations, and any individual will have had more experience with some types of situations than with others.” (p.20)
未結構的問題領域,需要真實情境知識才能解決

five stages: novice(新手), advanced beginner(進階初學者), competent(能手), proficient(熟手), expert(專家)

Novice|新手

Stage 1: Novice | 新手

“During the first stage of acquisition of a new skill through instruction, the novice learns to recognize various objective facts and features relevant to the skill and acquires rules for determining actions based upon those facts and features.” (p.21)

“Elements of the situation to be treated as relevant are so clear and objectively defined for the novice that they can be recognized without reference to the overall situation in which they occur. We call such elements 'context-free', and they rules that are to be applied the those facts regardless of what else is happening 'context-free rules.'” (p.21)
新手學習時,所處理的情境只有很明確具體的要素,與情境因素無關。

“The manipulation of unambiguously defined context-free elements by precise rules is called 'information processing'. If you recognize a letter E because it has certain horizontal and vertical lines in a certain relationship, you have done by information processing. If you recognize it because it matches what you have seen before and learned is an E, you have used holistic template matching, not information processing.” (p.21)
新手學習到資訊程序

“The beginning students want to do a good job, but lacking any coherent sense of the overall task he judges his performance mainly by how well he follows learned rules. After he acquires more than just a few rules, the exercise of his skill require so much concentration that his capacity to talk or listen to advice is severely limited. Like the training wheels on a child's first bicycle, these first rules allow the accumulation of experience, but soon they must be put aside to proceed.” (p.22)
初學者所知有限,因此只能根據符合規則的程度來評估自己的學習成效。但是隨著習得的超過教材所說的,他便會發現之前所學有限。就像腳踏車的輔助輪。

Advanced Beginner|進階初學者

the novice can coping the real situation.

examples: (1) a dog owner's ability of recognizing his dog's different bark; (2) automobile driver learned engine sounds listening when to shift gears. (3) the student nurse learns from experience how to distinguish the breathing sounds that indicate pulmonary edema form those suggesting pneumonia. (4) marketing decision maker learns not by rule but by experience how to access his company's competence in the manufacture of a new product, which becomes a factor in his decision-making.
根據這四個案例,進階初學者透過實際經驗學習如何有效的處理真實世界的工作,並且這些學習顯然都屬於到內隱知識運用的範疇。

Competence|勝任者

決策與因時制宜的能力。

“With more experience, the number of recognizable context-free and situational elements present in real-world circumstance eventually becomes overwhelming.”
隨著經驗的增加,在真實事件環境中可辨識的情境元素終將佔有數量上的絕對優勢。

護士專業教學的經驗:進階初學者可以正確的操作每一項動作,但是他們不知道什麼是重要的(小孩子哭喊的時候先去處理,因為教學上沒有這一項),沒有辦法因時制宜變化所學得的項目。

此能力與決策工作、計劃管控、目標設定有關。

“In general, a competent performer with a goal in mind sees a situation as a set of facts. The importance of the facts may depend on the presence of other factor. He has learned that when a situation has a particular constellation of those element a certain conclusion should be drawn, decision made, or expectation investigated.”(p.24)
通常,一個勝任者在心理會有一個目標,基於這個目標他將所處的情境視為種種事實的組合。透過事實間的比較找出重要的事實。他學到某種事實元素的組合將會導致某種結果,而做出某些決策,或滿足期望。

例:

  • 有能力的駕駛:不只是能安全的開車而已,而是能盡快的從甲地移動到乙地,同時也考慮乘客的舒適度與方便;他需要探查交通狀況以規劃出最好的交通路線。
  • 有能力的棋士:需要直覺而非分析。
  • 有能力的護士:不會一步步的照預定程序檢查病人。對每一個病人都會有特別的處理計劃。
  • 有能力的行銷經理:先決定是否要改變現狀,再著手計劃,最後才開始進行行銷活動。每一項決策活動都只注意到整個計畫中靈光一現的某些因素。

“Choosing a plan is no simple matter for the competent individual. There is no objective procedure like the novice's context free feature recognition. And while the advanced beginner can get along without recognizing and using a particular situational element until a sufficient number of examples renders identification easy and sure, to perform at the competent level requires choosing an organizing plan. Furthermore, the choice crucially affects behavior in a way that one particular situational element rarely does.”
勝任者層次所需要的能力是選擇一合適的計畫的能力。

與問題解決的相似性與相異性:
問題解決研究「有能力者」的心智程序:計畫、目標、策略、並且找出可以完成目的的有規則程序。但是並不是所有智力程序都是問題解決。

  • 相似點:
    • “When cognitive scientists, psychologists, and others who think about thinking speak of 'problem-solving' they have in mind the thought processes that characterize competence.”
    • Herbert Simon: his concern is to understand how we choose plans, goals, and strategies, and how situations represented as sets of facts and figures can be transformed by rule-like procedures into new sets that conform with our goals.
  • 批評: they typically go on to generalize their results too far, accepting as essentially true, without supporting this claim by any arguments or empirical evidence, that all intelligent behavior is of the problem-solving form.
  • problem-solving is sufficient to produce certain intelligent behavior, but not necessary.

Proficiency|精熟者

在諸多可能選項中選定目標並做出其後的決策。 “… he made conscious choices of both goals and decisions after reflecting upon various alternatives.”

精熟者只專注於情境中某些顯著的特點,並略過其他要素。 “because of the performer's perspective, certain features of the situation will stand out as salient and others will recede into the background and be ignored. As events modify the salient features, plans, expectations, and even the relative salience of feature will gradually change. It just happens, apparently because the proficient performer has experienced similar situations in the past and memories of them trigger plans similar to those that worked in the past and anticipations of events similar to those that occurred.”

引發記憶。holistic similarity recognition

直覺 與 know-how。

  • “When we speak of intuition or know-how, we are referring to the understanding that effortlessly occurs upon seeing similarities with previous experiences. We shall use 'intuition' and 'know-how' as synonymous, although a dictionary would distinguish them, assigning 'intuition' to purely cognitive activities and 'know-how' to the fluid performance of a bodily skill. ”
  • “Intuition or know-how, as we understand it, is neither wild guessing nor supernatural inspiration, but the sort of ability we all use all the time as we go about our everyday tasks, ”

同時利用直覺與分析技巧。

Expertise|專家

“An expert generally knows what to do based on mature and practiced understanding.”

專家做活動的時候是不需要問題解決的,不需要謹慎的決策,沒有特別認知到的。 “When things are proceeding normally, experts don't solve problems and don't make decision; they do what normally works.”

專家不一定都是對的。雖然專家常常不加思索的進行工作,但是在時間允許與重要事項上,專家也會謹慎的工作。然而專家的謹慎並非問題解決的運算,而更像是根據個人直覺的批判性反思,並且不常決策。

西洋棋專家研究:專家能根據棋子分佈的位置在五秒到十秒間應手,而不會嚴格的降低棋步的品質。

  • Herbert Simon 研究發現西洋棋大師能記住數千種西洋棋分佈的樣式。他將這些樣式稱為 chunks (棋形),並推測這些chunk(棋形)與下棋有關。辨識這些chunk(棋形)並不需要規則式的運算。
  • Herbert Simon's 假說的問題:

five stages

Skill level Components Perspective Decision Commitment
Novice Context-free None Analytical Detached
Advanced beginner Context-free and Situational None Analytical Detached
Competent Context-free and Situational Chosen Analytical Detached understanding and deciding. Involved in outcome
Proficient Context-free and Situational Experienced Analytical Involved understanding. Detached deciding
Expert Context-free and Situational Experienced Intuitive Involved

Deliberative Rationality|審慎的理性

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