Mind over machine (Dreyfus, Dreyfus & Athanasiou, 1986)
Five stages of skill acquisition
“As human beings acquires a skill through instruction and experience, they do not appear to leap from rule-guided 'knowing that' to experience-based know-how.” (p.19)
“As we examine in detail how novice, if he possesses innate ability and has the opportunity to acquire sufficient experience, gradually becomes an expert, we shall focus on the most common kind of problem area, sometimes called 'unstructured'. Such areas contain a potentially unlimited number of possibly relevant facts and features, and the way those elements interrelate and determine other events is unclear. Management, nursing, economic forecasting, teaching, and all social interactions fall into that very large class…. A high level of skill in any unstructured problem area seems to acquire considerable concrete experience with real situations, and any individual will have had more experience with some types of situations than with others.” (p.20)
five stages: novice(新手), advanced beginner(進階初學者), competent(能手), proficient(熟手), expert(專家)
Stage 1: Novice | 新手
“During the first stage of acquisition of a new skill through instruction, the novice learns to recognize various objective facts and features relevant to the skill and acquires rules for determining actions based upon those facts and features.” (p.21)
“Elements of the situation to be treated as relevant are so clear and objectively defined for the novice that they can be recognized without reference to the overall situation in which they occur. We call such elements 'context-free', and they rules that are to be applied the those facts regardless of what else is happening 'context-free rules.'” (p.21)
“The manipulation of unambiguously defined context-free elements by precise rules is called 'information processing'. If you recognize a letter E because it has certain horizontal and vertical lines in a certain relationship, you have done by information processing. If you recognize it because it matches what you have seen before and learned is an E, you have used holistic template matching, not information processing.” (p.21)
“The beginning students want to do a good job, but lacking any coherent sense of the overall task he judges his performance mainly by how well he follows learned rules. After he acquires more than just a few rules, the exercise of his skill require so much concentration that his capacity to talk or listen to advice is severely limited. Like the training wheels on a child's first bicycle, these first rules allow the accumulation of experience, but soon they must be put aside to proceed.” (p.22)
the novice can coping the real situation.
examples: (1) a dog owner's ability of recognizing his dog's different bark; (2) automobile driver learned engine sounds listening when to shift gears. (3) the student nurse learns from experience how to distinguish the breathing sounds that indicate pulmonary edema form those suggesting pneumonia. (4) marketing decision maker learns not by rule but by experience how to access his company's competence in the manufacture of a new product, which becomes a factor in his decision-making.
“With more experience, the number of recognizable context-free and situational elements present in real-world circumstance eventually becomes overwhelming.”
“In general, a competent performer with a goal in mind sees a situation as a set of facts. The importance of the facts may depend on the presence of other factor. He has learned that when a situation has a particular constellation of those element a certain conclusion should be drawn, decision made, or expectation investigated.”(p.24)
“Choosing a plan is no simple matter for the competent individual. There is no objective procedure like the novice's context free feature recognition. And while the advanced beginner can get along without recognizing and using a particular situational element until a sufficient number of examples renders identification easy and sure, to perform at the competent level requires choosing an organizing plan. Furthermore, the choice crucially affects behavior in a way that one particular situational element rarely does.”
- “When cognitive scientists, psychologists, and others who think about thinking speak of 'problem-solving' they have in mind the thought processes that characterize competence.”
- Herbert Simon: his concern is to understand how we choose plans, goals, and strategies, and how situations represented as sets of facts and figures can be transformed by rule-like procedures into new sets that conform with our goals.
- 批評： they typically go on to generalize their results too far, accepting as essentially true, without supporting this claim by any arguments or empirical evidence, that all intelligent behavior is of the problem-solving form.
- problem-solving is sufficient to produce certain intelligent behavior, but not necessary.
在諸多可能選項中選定目標並做出其後的決策。 “… he made conscious choices of both goals and decisions after reflecting upon various alternatives.”
精熟者只專注於情境中某些顯著的特點，並略過其他要素。 “because of the performer's perspective, certain features of the situation will stand out as salient and others will recede into the background and be ignored. As events modify the salient features, plans, expectations, and even the relative salience of feature will gradually change. It just happens, apparently because the proficient performer has experienced similar situations in the past and memories of them trigger plans similar to those that worked in the past and anticipations of events similar to those that occurred.”
引發記憶。holistic similarity recognition
直覺 與 know-how。
- “When we speak of intuition or know-how, we are referring to the understanding that effortlessly occurs upon seeing similarities with previous experiences. We shall use 'intuition' and 'know-how' as synonymous, although a dictionary would distinguish them, assigning 'intuition' to purely cognitive activities and 'know-how' to the fluid performance of a bodily skill. ”
- “Intuition or know-how, as we understand it, is neither wild guessing nor supernatural inspiration, but the sort of ability we all use all the time as we go about our everyday tasks, ”
“An expert generally knows what to do based on mature and practiced understanding.”
專家做活動的時候是不需要問題解決的，不需要謹慎的決策，沒有特別認知到的。 “When things are proceeding normally, experts don't solve problems and don't make decision; they do what normally works.”
- Herbert Simon 研究發現西洋棋大師能記住數千種西洋棋分佈的樣式。他將這些樣式稱為 chunks (棋形)，並推測這些chunk(棋形)與下棋有關。辨識這些chunk(棋形)並不需要規則式的運算。
- Herbert Simon's 假說的問題：
|Advanced beginner||Context-free and Situational||None||Analytical||Detached|
|Competent||Context-free and Situational||Chosen||Analytical||Detached understanding and deciding. Involved in outcome|
|Proficient||Context-free and Situational||Experienced||Analytical||Involved understanding. Detached deciding|
|Expert||Context-free and Situational||Experienced||Intuitive||Involved|