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social_cognitive_theory [2016/10/23 04:12] (current)
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 +==Social cognitive theory [社會認知理論]
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 +**社會認知理論(Social Cognitive Theory, SCT)** 認為個人在社會中的行動與舉止,都是透過對社會中他人行為的觀察而學習來的。即,個人知識與行為的學習,乃是透過自我激勵與自我調整(self-regulatory)機制,在社會互動、經驗的情境中,依據自己對他者的觀察,而自我建構(modeling)所習得的。而非受到教學內容素材與媒體的影響。
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 +此理論提供一個包含人、行為、環境的三角模型架構。在此架構中包含許多概念,其中最為Bandura強調的是自我效能([[:​Self-efficacy]])。自我效能類似自信類似,是一種基於認為自己具有能力以完成任務的信念。[自我效力可以應用在健康的議題上,例如研究自我效力與醫療效果的關係。?​]
 +
 +與社會認知的區別:​ \\ 社會認知理論(Social Cognitive Theory, SCT) 與社會心理學中的社會認知([[:​social cognition]]) 並不完全相同。SCT 專指由[[:​people:​Albert Bandura|A. Bandura]] 所發展出來的理論。
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 +應用: \\ 教育、心理學、傳播與行銷、公共健康,等等。
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 +
 +
 +
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 +=== 歷史與起源 ​
 +[[:​people:​N.E. Miller]]與[[:​people:​J. Dollard]]最早在1941年提出社會學習與想像理論,該理論認為人類對特定行為的學習是透過觀察。藉由模仿所觀察的行為,觀察者會固化所習得的行為,並獲得一正面強化(reinforcement)(Miller & Dollard, 1941)。]
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 +此一社會學習命題由[[:​people:​Albert Bandura]]與 Walters (1962)在《社會學習與個型發展 (Social Learning and Personality Development)》一書中得到進一步的擴充與理論化。即提出了 observational learning and vicarious reinforcement。
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 +1977 年 Bandura 出版 "​Self-efficacy:​ Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change"​,正式提出 self-efficacy。
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 +1986 年 Bandura 出版 "​Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory"​,提出cognitive,​ vicarious, self-regulatory,​ and self-reflective processes 對人類行為變化與調適的影響。建立其社會認知理論。People are viewed as self-organizing,​ proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating rather than as reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental forces or driven by concealed inner impulses. From this theoretical perspective,​ human functioning is viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences.
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 +建立完理論架構之後, Bandura 陸續發展出許多個人行為的面向,其中許多回歸到自律、自我效力(自信)等議題。
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 +
 +===Inhibitory and Disinhibitory Effects|抑制與非抑制效果===
 +觀察者的觀察結果會受到兩種不同的影響。當觀察者看到他人在某種社會情勢中的因為其行為被懲罰時,會產生一種抑制效果([[inhibitory effect]])。而一個非抑制效果([[disinhibitory effect]]),則是當行為受到讚揚時,觀察者在對此行為學習的想像中的強化(reinforcement)活動(Miller,​ 2005)。替代強化([[Vicarious reinforcement]])解釋 當觀察者雖未預期經驗實際回報或懲罰,但預估想像的行為中以上的效果會有類似的結果。這部份的社會認知理論相當依靠結果預期理論([[outcome expectancies]])。
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 +
 +
 +
 +
 +=== 重要概念 ​
 +(Source: Glanz et al, 2002, p169.)
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 +環境(Environment):​ 個人外在的物理性因素。提供機會與社會支援。\\ <fs 50%>​Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social support.</​fs>​
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 +情勢(Situation):​ 對環境的感知。修正感知錯誤並提供健康的形式。\\ <fs 50%>​Perception of the environment;​ correct misperceptions and promote healthful forms.</​fs>​
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 +行為能力(Behavioral capability):​ 執行行為的知識與能力。透過技巧訓練精熟學習。\\ <fs 50%>​Knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior; promote mastery learning through skills training.</​fs>​
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 +期望(Expectations):​ 行為的預期產出。建立行為的正面結果。\\ <fs 50%>​Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior; Model positive outcomes of healthful behavior.</​fs>​
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 +期待(Expectancies):​ 個人對結果的預定評價,激勵。\\ <fs 50%>The values that the person places on a given outcome, incentives; Present outcomes of change that have functional meaning.</​fs>​
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 +自律(Self-control):​ 規律化個人達成目標的行為。提供自我檢視、目標設定、問題解決、與自我獎勵的機會。\\ <fs 50%>​Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance;​ Provide opportunities for self-monitoring,​ goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward.</​fs>​
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 +觀察學習(Observational learning): 透過觀察他人行為與結果,包含目標行為的可信賴角色模型,以習得行為。\\ <fs 50%>​Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and outcomes of others’ behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior.</​fs>​
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 +強化(Reinforcements):​ 回應 [增強或減弱 再次出現事件的相似性的 個人行為]。促進自我啟動回饋與激勵。\\ <fs 50%>​Responses to a person’s behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of reoccurrence;​ Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives.</​fs>​
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 +自我效能([[:​Self-efficacy]]):​ 個人對能夠完成特定工作的能力的自信心。\\ <fs 50%>The person’s confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral change in small steps to ensure success.</​fs>​
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 +情感處理回應(Emotional coping responses): 個人用來處理情感刺激的策略或內隱技巧。提供問題解學與壓力管理的訓練。 \\ <fs 50%>​Strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management.</​fs>​
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 +互惠決定論(Reciprocal determinism):​ 在行為發生時,考慮到多重手段以改變行為,其個人、行為、與環境的動態互動。此多重手段包括環境改變、技巧改變、與個人改變。\\ <fs 50%>The dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental,​ skill, and personal change.</​fs>​
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 +===Identification and Self-Efficacy|認同與自我效能===
 +社會認知理論認為,當在觀察者與模式間有一緊密的認同(identification)存在,並且觀察者也能妥善的處理其自我效能([[self-efficacy]])時,學習更可能發生。在動機、認知與情感的交織歷程中,自我效能是人類動機、情感、行為基礎斷定的重要集合(Bandura,​ 1989)。認同可以使觀察者與另一人在想像中感覺到一種一對一的連結關係,並如果觀察者覺得他有這種能力可以進行想像中的活動,他將更可能將這些想像實現(Bandura,​ 1988)。  ​
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 +Bandura 於 1977 進一步提出自我效能(self-efficacy)的概念,以反駁傳統學習理論中的理解學習。
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 +"​people'​s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances"​
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 +
 +
 +== References
 +* Wikipedia [[wp>​Social_cognitive_theory]]
 +* Miwa, M. (2005). Bandura'​s Social Cognition. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 54-57). Medford, N.J. : Information Today.
 +
 +
 +===References (忘了哪裡來的?​)
 +
 +* Bandura. A. (1977). Self-efficacy:​ Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
 +* Bandura, A. (1978a). Reflections on self-efficacy. Advances in Behavioural Research and Therapy, 1, 237-269.
 +* Bandura, A. (1978b). The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist,​ 33, 344-358.
 +* Bandura. A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist,​ 37, 122-147.
 +* Bandura, A. (1984). Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 231-255.
 +* Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 +* Bandura, A. (1988). Organizational Application of Social Cognitive Theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13(2), 275-302. ​
 +* Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist,​ 44, 1175-1184. ★★
 +* Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287.
 +* Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist,​ 28, 117-148.
 +* Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 +* Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy:​ The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
 +* Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentive perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26.
 +* Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychology Review, 106, 676-713.
 +* Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.). Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 63-84). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
 +* James, W. (1981). The principles of psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 +* Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social learning and imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ★★
 +* Miller, Katherine (2005). Communication Theories: Perspectives,​ Processes, and Contexts (2nd ed.). New York, New York: McGraw-Hill.
 +* Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66, 543-578.
 +* Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. In M. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 1-49). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
 +* Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retreived month day, year, from http://​www.emory.edu/​EDUCATION/​mfp/​eff.html ★
 +* Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy,​ self-concept,​ and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), Self-perception (pp. 239-266). London: Ablex Publishing.
 +* Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist,​ 26, 207-231.
 +* Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2002). The development of academic self-efficacy. In A. Wigfield & J. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 16-31). San Diego: Academic Press.
 +* Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performances:​ A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240-261.
 +* Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (in press). Albert Bandura: The man and his contributions to educational psychology. In Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
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 +
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