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personas [2016/10/23 04:11] (current)
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 +== Persona(s) [人物角色/​代面]
 +Persona(s)在拉丁語中原意是指戲劇扮演時,用來表示某種角色的假面。中國古代也有同樣概念,即「代面」「臉譜」之意。
  
 +> 舊唐書音樂志:「代面出於北齊。北齊蘭陵王長恭,才武而面美,常著假面以對敵,嘗擊周師金墉城下,勇冠三軍,齊人壯之,為此舞以效其指揮擊刺之容,謂之蘭陵王入陣曲。」
 +
 +演員戴上某種特定的面具,即代表扮演特定的角色,包含其背景、個性、偏好與行為特色。此意後來引申為一種特定的社會人物圖像或角色。並在傳播、行銷、互動設計等領域,都據此概念發展出各自的方法與工具。
 +
 +=== Persona(s)在互動設計領域
 +
 +Persona(s)((目前並沒有統一的譯法,有角色、人物角色、人物,等。但其實我喜歡「代面」這種譯法))在HCI/​UCD/​UX 等設計領域中,是專指一種設計方法與工具。Personas 透過對於一些使用者原型(archetype )的描繪,作為貫穿整個設計過程中,凝聚團隊共識,以及檢查確認每一項功能是否符合使用者需求的方法。
 +
 +Personas 此一互動/​軟體介面設計工具,最早由美國軟體設計師[[:​people:​Alan Cooper]]在 "​Inmates Are Running the Asylum"​(1988,中譯:​ 軟件創新之路)一書中所提出。並在其互動設計方法經典"​About Face"​中進一步發揚,因此在軟體設計/​人機介面設計/​互動設計領域中,備受重視。
 +
 +儘管,Alan Cooper 對其 Persona方法有詳細的定義與取捨,但也有許多設計師或使用性研究人員並沒有完全採用Cooperian 的 Personas,而進一步結合了不同的方法發展出各自的 Personas方法。
 +
 +==== 作為設計工具的Personas 之目的
 +[[:​people:​Alan Cooper]](2007)(([[:​study:​Cooper,​ A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About face 3]]: the essentials of interaction design. P.78-9))認為 Personas 應用在設計上,可以達成以下目的:
 +
 +* 決定產品規格與作用。Personas 所定義的目的與任務,可以提供設計工作的基礎。\\ <fs 50%>​Determine what a product should do and how it should behave. Persona goals and tasks provide the foundation for the design effort.</​fs>​
 +* 與團隊中不同成員溝通。Personas 是設計決策討論中的共通語言,能幫助設計的各個階段都能聚焦在使用者上。 \\ <fs 50%>​Communicate with stakeholders,​ developers, and other designers. Personas provide a common language for discussing design decisions and also help keep the design centered on users at every step in the process.</​fs>​
 +* 建立共識,釐清設計主張。減少發展複雜的使用者圖解模型。 \\ <fs 50%>​Build consensus and commitment to the design. With a common language comes a common understanding. Personas reduce the need for elaborate diagrammatic models; it's easier to understand the many nuances of user behavior through the narrative structures that personas employ. Put simply, because personas resemble real people, they'​re easier to relate to than feature lists and flowcharts.</​fs>​
 +* 測量設計效力。Personas 無法取代以真人來進行測試的有效性,但提供設計者一個解決設計問題的有效的工具,並在真人測試前提供一個有力的設計基準。\\ <fs 50%>​Measure the design'​s effectiveness. Design choices can be tested on a persona in the same way that they can be shown to a real user during the formative process. Although this doesn'​t replace the need to test with real users, it provides a powerful reality-check tool for designers trying to solve design problems. This allows design iteration to occur rapidly and inexpensively at the whiteboard, and it results in a far stronger design baseline when the time comes to test with actual people.</​fs>​
 +* 協助其他與產品相關的工作,如行銷與銷售計畫擬定。\\ <fs 50%>​Contribute to other product-related efforts such as marketing and sales plans. The authors have seen their c1ientsrepurpose personas across their organization,​ informing marketing campaigns, organizational structure, and other strategic planning activities. Business units outside of product development desire sophisticated knowledge of a product'​s users and typically view personas with great interest.</​fs>​
 +
 +[[:​people:​Alan Cooper]](2007)(([[:​study:​Cooper,​ A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About face 3]]: the essentials of interaction design. P.79-80))認為 Personas 可以避免三種設計問題:
 +* 變形蟲使用者(The elastic user)
 +* 自我感覺良好(Self-referential design)
 +* 特異的個案(Edge cases)
 +
 +==== Cooper-Personas
 +
 +Cooper-Personas (正統Cooper式的Personas)是一種目標導向的設計方法與工具。將使用者依據其目的進行分群,並進一步詳述其為了完成目標所必須執行的工作任務、所需具備的技能或背景知識等能力與資源。
 +
 +不同於正規的人類學/​心理學式的理性使用者行為研究,也不同於行銷/​傳播專業中的消費者人口統計偏好調查,Personas方法相對地更簡單,更隨意,更不講求邏輯;更偏向於實務上的效率與便利性。以下段落取自Cooper自述,其Persona方法與學術/​行銷研究的不同。
 +
 +Alan Cooper (2003)((http://​www.cooper.com/​journal/​2003/​08/​the_origin_of_personas.html)):​
 +
 +> 雖然我很想說 personas 是反直覺的,但更準確的說,personas 是反邏輯的。我猜這是為什麼這種方法是起源自實務工作,而非學術界或實驗室。\\ <fs 50%>"​I’m tempted to say that personas are counter-intuitive,​ but it would be more accurate to say that they are counter-logical. I suspect that this is why they originated in practice rather than in the laboratory or in academia."</​fs>​
 +
 +> If, responding to the directive design for the user, you follow logic, you tend to canvass the user community, collect their requests for functions, and then provide them a product containing all of those functions. I call this “the sum of all desired features.” There is abundant empirical proof that this solution is only marginally effective at best. The problem is that while logic is a powerful and effective programming tool, it is a pathetically weak and inappropriate interaction design tool.
 +
 +> 許多我的後繼者進行的是人類學研究,建立了類似 Persona 的架構以協助設計工作。產品行銷專家也使用了類似Persona的方式,定義人口統計區隔。但 Persona 不同於這些方法,且是特別有效的。\\ <fs 50%>Many of my predecessors have employed ethnographic user research and created persona-like constructs to aid their designing. Product marketing professionals have also been using persona-like entities for many years to define demographic segments. But personas are unique and uniquely effective.</​fs>​
 +====Grudin & Pruitt Personas
 +
 +不同於Cooper,​ 認為需要透過各種方法(質化量化)力求獲得正確、具有代表性的 Personas。
 +
 +
 +Pruitt, J., & Adlin, T. (2006). The persona lifecycle: Keeping people in mind throughout product design.
 +==== CWA-WDA Personas
 +我根據[[:​cognitive work analysis]] 中的工作領域分析(work domain analysis)方法,所建立的Personas 架構。特點在於,每一層與下一層有著手段-目的關係(Means-Ends relationship)。
 +
 +Means-Ends Relationship of Goals/​Attributes/​Behavior
 +- Goals & Purpose
 +- Priority | Interest | Value | Attribute ​
 +- General Function | Task
 +- Physical Process | Behavior
 +- Resources | Appearance, Location, and Configuration of Material Objects | (Cognitive: Knowledge, Habitus, Memory)
 +
 +==== Persona Segment
 +Personas 的建構是基於對於實際人們對於某設計使用情境、背景與脈絡的了解,而進行的假定。對設計(互動介面設計/​網站設計/​軟體設計/​etc.)而言,Personas 需要描繪的不是具體的功能使用途徑,而是其個性、背景、偏好、需求與目的。在行為部分的描繪,需要著重於既有的行為習慣,而非著重於具體與介面互動的行動。
 +
 +- 目的| Goals
 +- 偏好/​興趣/​厭惡點| Attributes/​Interest/​Pain-point
 +- 既有路徑/​習慣/​習性| Behavior-routing/​Path/​Habitus
 +- 任務/​行動(有意圖或目標導向的)| Tasks/​Action
 +- 物質環境/​資源| Material-Environment/​Resources (Devices & Context)
 +- 經驗/​領域知識/​認知資源| Experinece/​Domain-Knowledge/​Cognitive-Resources
 +
 +==== 要包含像是真實的人與圖像
 +- 容易溝通
 +- 容易記憶
 +
 +== Personas (行銷)
 +
 +在行銷/​市場研究中的 Persona,通常是透過量化調查研究工具,找出各種消費者偏好的族群區隔。
 +依據該量化研究工具的設計,行銷/​市場研究的族群區隔可以是人口統計式的(demographic),也可以是行為或態度偏好式的,例如:常常收視某種電視節目的。
 +== Ref
 +* Making Persona work for your site http://​www.slideshare.net/​MulderMedia/​the-user-is-always-right-making-personas-work-for-your-site
 +* http://​www.slideshare.net/​KimGoodwin/​making-personas-work-without-breaking-the-bank-ux-london-2011
 +* http://​www.slideshare.net/​zef/​power-to-the-people-1467865
 +
 +
 +== Metadata/​Backlinks ​
 +
 +{{backlinks>​.}}
 +{{tag>​HCI UXD UCD}}