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information_poverty [2016/10/23 04:12] (current)
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 +==Information poverty [資訊貧困]==
 +**Key person:** [[:​people:​Elfreda Chatman]] (1996)
 +* Her research focused on understanding information behavior through the social factors influencing the behavior.
 +* build up 3 middle-range theories: Information poverty, [[:life in the round]], and [[:​normative behavior]].
 +* Question: What constitutes a poverty lifestyle?
 +** Phenomenon: Did not find the expected results of information sharing in homogeneous population.
 +** Interpretation: ​
 +*** social network theory can't explain; ​
 +*** developed her own theory of Information poverty.
 +Information poverty:
 +* Key concepts: self-protective behaviors invoked during the information seeking process 資訊尋求程序中的自我保護行為
 +** secrecy ​ 守密(隱蔽自我):​ "​intentional concealment...the overall intent of secret information is the idea that it will protect a person from unwanted intrusion into private space."​
 +** deception 欺瞞(自我扮演):​ "​Deception is a deliberate attempt to play-act, that is, to engage in activities in which our personal reality is consciously being distorted. It is a process meant to hide our true condition by give false and misleading information."​
 +** risk-taking 冒險(風險評估):​ "an attribute affecting the acceptance of an innovation based on our perception of whether it is worthwhile or not. It doesn'​t seem to merit consideration if, weighted against personal or negative cost, the result would be negative."​
 +** situational relevance 情境相關:​ Situational relevance is conceptualized as being consistent with the term "​utility"​
 +* 6 propositions:​
 +## The information poor perceive themselves to be devoid of the sources that might help them. \\ 缺乏資訊覺察使得他們遠離可能幫助他們的資訊。
 +## Information poverty is partially associated with class distinction. \\ 資訊貧困與階級區分部份地相關
 +## Information poverty is determined by self-protective behaviors, which are used in response to social norms.\\ 對社會規範的自我保護行為導致資訊貧困。
 +## Both secrecy and deception are self-protecting mechanisms due to a sense of mistrust regarding the interest or ability of others to provide useful information. ​ \\ 守密與欺瞞是因對他人的不信任感,而有的自我保護機制
 +## A decision to risk exposure about our true feeling is often not taken due to a perception that negative consequences outweigh benefits. \\ 因為權衡利害,通常不會冒險揭露自我感覺。
 +## New knowledge will be selectively introduced into the information world of poor people. A condition that influences this process is the relevance of that information in response to everyday problems and concerns. \\ 貧困者選擇性的接受新知識。此選擇取決於新資訊與日常生活的相關性。
 +* 資訊貧困也是由資訊尋求行為研究中導生而來的。但是由於採用質性日常生活探究,因此在經驗資料中有許多既有資訊尋求模式無法處理的現象。
 +* 「資訊貧困」實際上是一種符合自我保護機制的生存策略。此一生存策略的層級與「積極進取」、「資訊豐富」、「萬般皆下品唯有讀書高」、「升大學」、「資訊分享」等等是相同的。
 +** 我認為,權衡各種生存策略的效用,即,個人如何選擇採用何種策略,取決於行動者個人當下的外部情境。
 +** 我認為,選擇「資訊貧困」作為生存策略也是人的理性行動。其中各種行動決策也是個人理性判斷的結果(見命題5,​6)。
 +** 此一生存策略的形成,除了與外部情境因素相關的個人判斷,我認為也可能與社會性認知有關。
 +** 我不認為「資訊貧困」是一個必須避免或譴責的現象。我認為各種生存策略都是平等的,各自有各自的場域效用。在某種情境場域下,資訊貧乏可能是較優策略。因此找出此一生存策略的優勢情境也是有意義的。
 +** 如研究取向為避免此現象,亦需追究積累出此一生存策略的情境因素。
 +** 研究應該接受或是拒絕此一「資訊貧困」,需由宏觀角度進行公共選擇研判。
 +* 命題2不具體。因為(1)「階級(class)」的定義不明;​ (2)「部份地(partially)相關」保留此命題的曖昧性。
 +* 命題1,是由外部來決定主觀的有用性。「有幫助的」應取決於主觀當事人的判斷,另外也需考慮獲取資訊背後影響的機會成本。命題1欲論定資訊貧乏者的行為不合理性之處。
 +@htchien [資訊貧困]是指某些人會傾向遠離對自己有幫助的資訊;會自我封閉、欺瞞、隱瞞自我感覺得一種自我保護傾向行為
 +* Chatman, E. A. (1996). The impoverished life-world of outsiders. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 47(3), 193-206.