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indexing [2016/10/23 04:11] (current)
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 +==Indexing - 索引編製/​索引法
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 +相關: [[index]], [[indexing process]]
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 +**Definition**(1) - Indexing is, minimally, the analysis of documents for their significant characteristics in order to represent those characteristics in an information system. | 簡言之,索引編製,是為了在資訊系統內呈現文件顯著特徵,所進行的分析工作。(Langridge,​ 1989) 
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 +**Definition**(2) - Indexing is the process of creating the entries in an index. The essential operations in theis process are: (1) scanning the collection, (2) analyzing tis content, this content analysis being based on predetermined criteria of use of the collection and the index, (3) tagging discrete items in the collection with appropriate identifiers,​ and (4) adding to each identifier the precise location within the collection where the item occurs, so that it may be retrieved. Additional functions, which may but need not be performed by the same indexer, are: (1) cumulating the resulting entries into a cohesive, consistent whole, (2) establishing rules for the selection of identifiers,​ (3) establishing a pattern of interrelationship of identifiers (through cross references, tracings, and scope notes), (4) establishing the format of the locator, and (5) determining the physical form in which the completed index is to be published or otherwise mede available for use. ([[:​study:​rothman_j._1974_._index_indexer_indexing|Rothman,​ 1974]])
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 +[[:​study:​mai_j.-e._2001_._analysis_in_indexing|Mai(2005)]]區分兩種索引法:文件中心法(document-centered)與領域中心法(domain-centered)。
 +* 文件中心(document-centered):​ Mai 認為傳統的索引法都是以文件中心或是文件導向(document-oriented),即經由索引者,分析文件中主題(subject matter)作為索引詞(index term)。Mai認為文件導向的索引法的重點在於:(1)文件實體與其可徵信的描述,與(2)索引者應忠於本文與作者之主張。
 +* 領域中心(domain-centered):​ 領域中心索引法由使用者與使用情境的角度來思考,並以Hjorland與 Albrechtsen於1995年提出的領域分析([[:​domain analysis|domain analysis]])為基礎的索引法。領域中心的索引法,需要分析文本,讀者,與索引者自己本身。即,索引除了考慮文本本身,還要考慮使用者的資訊需求,與索引者本身所扮演的角色。 ​
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