PISA, Programme for International Student Assessment
由OECD（經濟合作組織）組織的「國際學生評價項目」（Programme for International Student Assessment，PISA）計劃在32個國家（包括28個OECD國家及4個非OECD國家）中抽選26.5萬個15歲青少年，以紙筆測驗衡量這群初中學生的閱讀能力、數學能力和科學能力，希望瞭解即將完成義務教育的各國初中學生，是否具備了未來生活所需的知識與技能，並為終身學習奠定良好基礎。
In science, having specific knowledge, such as the names of plants and animals, is of less value than understanding broad topics such as energy consumption, biodiversity and human health in thinking about the issues under debate in the adult community. In reading, the capacity to develop interpretations of written material and to reflect on the content and qualities of text are central skills. In mathematics, being able to reason quantitatively and to represent relationships or dependencies is more apt than the ability to answer familiar textbook questions when it comes to deploying mathematical skills in everyday life.
- Scientific literacy: An individual’s scientific knowledge and use of that knowledge to identify questions, to acquire new knowledge, to explain scientific phenomena, and to draw evidence-based conclusions about science-related issues, understanding of the characteristic features of science as a form of human knowledge and enquiry, awareness of how science and technology shape our material, intellectual, and cultural environments, and willingness to engage in science-related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen.
科學素養: 運用科學知識 提出問題，獲取新知識，解釋科學現象，就科學議題做出有證據力的結論。了解科學是一種人類知識的形式，並且明瞭科學與技術對我們物質生活、智識、文化環境的影響。願意作為一個有反思力的，關注科學相關議題的公民。
- Reading literacy: An individual’s capacity to understand, use and reflect on written texts, in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential and to participate in society.
- Mathematical literacy: An individual’s capacity to identify and understand the role that mathematics plays in the world, to make well-founded judgements and to use and engage with mathematics in ways that meet the needs of that individual’s life as a constructive, concerned and reflective citizen.
Exposition is a type of text in which the information is presented as composite concepts or mental constructs, or elements into which concepts or mental constructs can be analysed. The text provides an explanation of how the component elements interrelate in a meaningful whole and often answers “how” questions.
Argumentation is a type of text that presents propositions as to the relationship between concepts, or other propositions. Argumentative texts often answer “why” questions. Another important sub-classification of argumentative texts is persuasive texts.
Instruction (sometimes called injunction) is the type of text that provides directions on what to do and includes procedures, rules, regulations and statutes specifying certain behaviours.
Narration is the type of text in which the information refers to properties of objects in time. Narrative texts typically provide answers to “when”, or “in what sequence” questions.
Description is a type of text in which the information refers to properties of objects in space. Descriptive texts typically provide an answer to “what” questions.
Documents or records are texts designed to standardise and conserve information. They can be characterised by highly formalised textual and formatting features.
Hypertext is a set of text slots linked together in such a way that the units can be read in different sequences, allowing readers to follow various routes to the information.
Calls and advertisements are documents designed to invite the reader to do something, e.g. to buy goods or services, attend gatherings or meetings, elect a person to a public office, etc. The purpose of these documents is to persuade the reader. They offer something and request both attention and action. Advertisements, invitations, summonses, warnings and notices are examples of this document format.
Charts and graphs are iconic representations of data. They are used for the purposes of scientific argumentation, and also in journals and newspapers to display numerical and tabular public information in a visual format.
Vouchers testify that their owner is entitled to certain services. The information that they contain must be sufficient to show whether the voucher is valid or not. Typical examples are tickets, invoices, etc.
Information sheets differ from forms in that they provide, rather than request, information. They summarise information in a structured way and in such a format that the reader can easily and quickly locate specific pieces of information. Information sheets may contain various text forms as well as lists, tables, figures and sophisticated text-based graphics (headings, fonts, indentation, borders, etc.) to summarise and highlight information. Timetables, price lists, catalogues and programmes are examples of this type of non-continuous text.
Diagrams often accompany technical descriptions (e.g. demonstrating parts of a household appliance), expository texts and instructive texts (e.g. illustrating how to assemble a household appliance). It is often useful to distinguish procedural (how to) from process (how something works) diagrams.
Forms are structured and formatted texts which request the reader to respond to specific questions in specified ways. Forms are used by many organisations to collect data. They often contain structured or pre-coded answer formats. Typical examples are tax forms, immigration forms, visa forms, application forms, statistical questionnaires, etc.
Certificates are written acknowledgements of the validity of an agreement or a contract. They are formalised in content rather than format. They require the signature of one or more persons authorised and competent to bear testimony of the truth of the given statement. Warranties, school certificates, diplomas, contracts, etc. are documents that have these properties.
Maps are non-continuous texts that indicate the geographical relationships between places. There is a variety of types of maps. Road maps mark the distance and routes between identified places. Thematic maps indicate the relationships between locations and social or physical features.
Tables are row and column matrices. Typically, all the entries in each column and each row share properties and thus the column and row labels are part of the information structure of the text. Common tables include schedules, spreadsheets, order forms and indexes.