William I. Thomas
William Isaac Thomas (1863 - 1947), was an American sociologist.
- migration studies
According to an anecdote told by Thomas himself, it was a complete accident that inspired him to use personal written material as an ethnographic source and to develop the biographic approach in sociology, which would later establish his lasting reputation in sociology. While walking down a street near his home in Chicago, Thomas was almost hit by a garbage bag which had been thrown out of a window. The bag burst open and Thomas discovered a letter in it, which he curiously picked up to discover it was written by a Polish woman immigrant. He spent the next years collecting both oral reports and written materials in the Chicago Polish community and its country of origin. He utilised a variety of documents ranging from newspaper reports, archives of organisations, to personal letters and diaries, which he acquired by placing advertisements in the Chicago Polish-language press - offering, e.g., 10 to 20 cents per letter sent from Poland.
Thomas theorem: “If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences”. 如果人定義情境為實，則結果為實。 [Thomas, William I.; Thomas, Dorothy: The Child in America (Alfred Knopf, 1929, 2nd ed., p. 572)]
- definition of situation
Thomas's Situational Analysis - http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Thomas/THOMASW6.HTML
- 上述的人–高等動物，有權力拒絕服從較早時間前的刺激…. 我們稱之為抑制的能力…..
- 所有初步的自決行為，總是有需要經過一評估與考慮的階段 ,我們稱此為「情境定義」(definition of the situation)。…
- 道德規範是由連續的情境定義建立的，一組表達自己願望的行為規則。個人往往傾向於享樂的選擇、愉悅第一；和社會效用的選擇、安全第一…. 而這正是道德規範(moral code)浮現之關鍵。
- Chicago school (sociology) 芝加哥社會學派
- Florian Witold Znaniecki, Robert E. Park