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decision_making [2006/10/25 10:04]
Charles Chen created
decision_making [2016/10/22 20:11] (current)
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 **Decision making** is the [[cognition|cognitive process]] leading to the selection of a course of action among  [[alternative]]s. Every decision making process produces a final [[choice]]. It can be an action or an opinion. It begins when we need to do something but we do not know what. Therefore, decision-making is a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational, and can be based on explicit [[assumption]]s or [[tacit assumptions]]. **Decision making** is the [[cognition|cognitive process]] leading to the selection of a course of action among  [[alternative]]s. Every decision making process produces a final [[choice]]. It can be an action or an opinion. It begins when we need to do something but we do not know what. Therefore, decision-making is a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational, and can be based on explicit [[assumption]]s or [[tacit assumptions]].
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 +**決策**是一種在眾多選項中作出選擇行動的[[cognitve process|認知程序]]。每一個決策程序最終都會「選定」一個結論。這個結論可以是一個實際行動,或是一種看法意見。決策行為的起始點,是當我們需要做某些事情,但是卻不知道從何開始。因此,決策是一個推論程序;並可以理性的,或是非理性的程序;也可能是基於外顯的假定,或是內隱的假定。
  
 Common examples include [[shopping]],​ deciding what to [[eat]], when to [[sleep]], and deciding whom or what to [[vote]] for in an [[election]] or [[referendum]]. Common examples include [[shopping]],​ deciding what to [[eat]], when to [[sleep]], and deciding whom or what to [[vote]] for in an [[election]] or [[referendum]].
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 +例如購物、決定吃什麼,何時上床就寢,投票給誰等等。
  
 Decision making is said to be a psychological construct. This means that although we can never "​see"​ a decision, we can infer from observable behaviour that a decision has been made. Therefore, we conclude that a psychological event that we call "​decision making"​ has occurred. It is a construction that imputes commitment to action. That is, based on observable actions, we assume ​ that people have made a commitment to affect the action. ​ Decision making is said to be a psychological construct. This means that although we can never "​see"​ a decision, we can infer from observable behaviour that a decision has been made. Therefore, we conclude that a psychological event that we call "​decision making"​ has occurred. It is a construction that imputes commitment to action. That is, based on observable actions, we assume ​ that people have made a commitment to affect the action. ​
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 +決策被稱為一種心理上的構念[?​](construct)。即,即使我們無法真的「看見」決策,我們可以透過可觀察的行為,推導出決策行為的過程,以此,察覺出「決策」的心理事件。也就是說,根據可觀察的行動,我們假定人們做出一項心理決定,進而完成行動。
  
 Structured rational decision making is an important part of all science-based professions,​ where specialists apply their [[knowledge]] in a given area to making informed decisions. ​ For example, **medical decision making** often involves making a [[diagnosis]] and selecting an appropriate [[treatment]]. ​ Some research using [[naturalistic decision making|naturalistic methods]] shows, however, that in situations with higher time pressure, higher stakes, or increased ambiguities,​ experts use intuitive decision making rather than structured approaches, following a [[recognition primed decision]] approach to fit a set of indicators into the expert'​s experience and immediately arrive at a satisfactory course of action without weighing alternatives. Structured rational decision making is an important part of all science-based professions,​ where specialists apply their [[knowledge]] in a given area to making informed decisions. ​ For example, **medical decision making** often involves making a [[diagnosis]] and selecting an appropriate [[treatment]]. ​ Some research using [[naturalistic decision making|naturalistic methods]] shows, however, that in situations with higher time pressure, higher stakes, or increased ambiguities,​ experts use intuitive decision making rather than structured approaches, following a [[recognition primed decision]] approach to fit a set of indicators into the expert'​s experience and immediately arrive at a satisfactory course of action without weighing alternatives.
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 +有結構的理性決策對所有科學專業都是重要的。
  
 Due to the large number of considerations involved in many decisions, computer-based [[decision support system]]s have been developed to assist decision makers in considering the implications of various courses of thinking. ​ They can help reduce the [[risk]] of human [[error]]s. Due to the large number of considerations involved in many decisions, computer-based [[decision support system]]s have been developed to assist decision makers in considering the implications of various courses of thinking. ​ They can help reduce the [[risk]] of human [[error]]s.
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   *[[Morphological analysis]] - all possible solutions to a multi-dimensional problem complex   *[[Morphological analysis]] - all possible solutions to a multi-dimensional problem complex
   *[[Optimization (mathematics)|optimization]]   *[[Optimization (mathematics)|optimization]]
-**[[constrained optimization]] +    ​*[[constrained optimization]] 
-*[[Paired Comparison Analysis]] - paired choice analysis +  *[[Paired Comparison Analysis]] - paired choice analysis 
-*[[Pareto Analysis]] - selection of a limited of number of tasks that produce significant overall effect +  *[[Pareto Analysis]] - selection of a limited of number of tasks that produce significant overall effect 
-*[[Scenario analysis]] - process of analyzing possible future events +  *[[Scenario analysis]] - process of analyzing possible future events 
-*[[Six Thinking Hats]] - symbolic process for parallel thinking +  *[[Six Thinking Hats]] - symbolic process for parallel thinking 
-*[[Strategic planning]] process - applying the objectives, SWOTs, strategies, programs process +  *[[Strategic planning]] process - applying the objectives, SWOTs, strategies, programs process 
-*[[Ubiquitous command and control]] is a concept for dynamic decision making based on "​agreement between an individual and the world",​ and "​agreements between individuals"​+  *[[Ubiquitous command and control]] is a concept for dynamic decision making based on "​agreement between an individual and the world",​ and "​agreements between individuals"​
  
 ==Decision-makers and influencers== ==Decision-makers and influencers==
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 ==See also== ==See also==
-*[[Cognition]] +  ​*[[Cognition]] 
-**[[Collaborative intelligence]] +    *[[Collaborative intelligence]] 
-**[[Decision theory]] +    *[[Decision theory]] 
-*[[Group process]] +  *[[Group process]] 
-*[[Groupthink]] +  *[[Groupthink]] 
-*[[Majoritarianism]] +  *[[Majoritarianism]] 
-*[[Majority rule]] +  *[[Majority rule]] 
-*[[Mindset]] +  *[[Mindset]] 
-*[[Minoritarianism]] +  *[[Minoritarianism]] 
-*[[Morphological analysis]] +  *[[Morphological analysis]] 
-*[[Online deliberation]] +  *[[Online deliberation]] 
-*[[Public choice theory]] +  *[[Public choice theory]] 
-*[[Rulemaking]]+  *[[Rulemaking]]
  
 ==External links== ==External links==
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 * Socio-Economic Planning Sciences ​ * Socio-Economic Planning Sciences ​
 * [http://​www.elsevier.com/​wps/​find/​journaldescription.cws_home/​622929/​description#​description Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier] * [http://​www.elsevier.com/​wps/​find/​journaldescription.cws_home/​622929/​description#​description Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier]
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