Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

concept_map [2016/10/23 04:11] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +translate form http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Concept_map
 +
 +==Concept map [概念圖]==
 +
 +**Concept mapping[概念圖繪製]** 是將各種不同概念與其關係視覺化([[Visualization]])的一種技巧,概念圖是呈現概念間關係的圖解(diagram)。在概念圖中,標名(labelled)的箭頭線段連結各個概念,箭頭的方向表示往下發展的層次。這些線段的名稱會像是:「引發」、「導致」、「需要」、「提供」等等。
 +
 +==Development==
 +[[:​people:​Joseph D. Novak]]於1970年代,在康乃爾大學(Cornell University)發展出概念圖繪製技巧。當時,Novak 將這種技巧應用在科學教學上,做為一種增進理解的教學技術。Novak 的設計是基於[[:​people:​David Ausubel]]的理論([[assimilation theory]])。Ausubel 在此理論中,強調建構式教學([[constructivism learning]])的觀點,認為先前知識(prior knowledge)是學習新知識的基礎框架(framework),並有不可取代的重要性。在 Novak 的著作 //Learning to Learn// 中,指出「有意義的學習,涉及將新概念與命題的同化(assimilation)入既有的認知架構中。」
 +
 +===運用===
 +概念圖被認為有助於創意發想。例如,概念圖繪製有時被用作為腦力激盪(brain-storming)的工具。雖然概念圖通常是非常個人化且個殊的,但是也會被用在複雜概念的溝通工作中。
 +
 +形式化的概念圖也被用在軟體設計工作中。通常這種概念圖會以[[UML|Unified Modeling Language(UML)]]的圖示系統作為開發方法中的表記系統。
 +
 +在人工智慧與語意網路之類的研究中,概念圖繪製也被視為一種初階的「本體建構(ontology-building)」以表徵形式化的論證(formal argument)。
 +
 +概念圖被廣泛的運用在教育與企業領域:
 +
 +* 在文獻與相關資料來源中,進行筆記([[Note taking]])與歸納關鍵概念、其關係與階層。
 +* 創造新知識內容。例如,將內隱知識轉換為有組織的知識資源。
 +* 機構知識保存。例如,引出員工的專業知識。
 +* 協同知識塑模(collaborative knowledge modeling)
 +* 促進願景分享與組織間的互相理解
 +* 教學設計:被 Ausubelian 學派用作為進階組織工具,以提供後續資訊與學習的初始概念架構。 ​
 +* 訓練:被 Ausubelian 學派用作為進階組織工具,以呈現工作情境,以及情境與其工作、組織的策略目的、與訓練目標的關係。
 +* 增進有意義的學習
 +* 溝通複雜概念與論題
 +* 檢驗複雜概念與論題的對稱性,以及術語聯結
 +* 詳述觀點的整體結構,串聯思想,或描繪論點,讓他人檢視。
 +* 增強後設認知  ​
 +* 改善語言能力
 +* 評估學習者對學習動機、概念與概念間關係的理解程度
 +
 +
 +===與心智圖(mind map)的差別===
 +概念圖與心智圖([[mind map]])是類似的圖式工具,但是仍然有差別
 +
 +心智圖通常會受到其階層(樹狀)架構的限制。
 +
 +有研究證據顯示,知識在腦中是以命題為基本單位,採階層式儲存的。因為概念地圖的目的是反映知識元素的組織,因此能有助於理解(sense-making)與進行有意義的學習。
 +
 +Concept maps were developed to enhance meaningful learning in the sciences. A well made concept map grows within a ''​context frame''​ defined by an explicit "focus question,"​ while a mind map has branches radiating out from a central picture.
 +
 +另一個概念圖與心智圖的差別,是兩者繪製時速度與自發性的不同。心智圖反映心中所想的。而概念圖被認為應該是現實(抽象上)的概念地圖或系統。
 +
 +=== External links ===
 +*[http://​ltsnpsy.york.ac.uk/​conceptmapping/​ Concept Mapping Website]
 +* [http://​www.logo.com/​twp/​teaching_resources.html Free Concept Mapping Resources] to help teachers introduce young children to the ideas of Concept Mapping.
 +*[http://​wiki.conceptmapping.org/​ Wiki dedicated to conceptmapping]
 +*[http://​users.edte.utwente.nl/​lanzing/​cm_home.htm Concept Mapping Homepage by Jan Lanzing]
 +*[http://​cmap.coginst.uwf.edu/​info/​printer.html "The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How To Construct Them"​],​ Joseph D. Novak, Cornell University ​
 +*[http://​www.pavonerisorse.to.it/​cacrt/​mappe/​ Italian Site on the Concept Mapping use in the school, by Marco Guastavigna]
 +*[http://​www.graphic.org/​concept.html Concept Mapping at the Graphic Organizer]
 +*[http://​cmap.ihmc.us Institute for Human and Machine Cognition - Free Concept Map Tool]
 +*[http://​www.ericdigests.org/​1998-1/​concept.htm Concept Mapping: A Graphical System for Understanding the Relationship between Concepts] - From the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology.
 +
 +==== Concept mapping software ====
 +* [http://​www.mind-mapping.org Software for information organisation] A very complete list of mind mapping/​concept mapping software.
 +
 +==== Freely available software====
 +There are several good freely available pieces of software that allow the creation of concept maps.
 +* [http://​cmap.ihmc.us/​download IHMC CmapTools] is a multiplatform freeware
 +* [http://​www.compendiuminstitute.org/​ Compendium] is a freeware concept mapper with database backend, written in Java
 +* [http://​www.conzilla.org/​ Conzilla] is a GNU GPL-licenced concept mapper written in Java
 +* [http://​sourceforge.net/​projects/​tuftsvue/​ VUE] is a desktop concept mapping tool developed under a grant from the Mellon Foundation. ​ Written in Java, it runs on a variety of platforms.
 +
 +==== Proprietary software====
 +There are many pieces of [[proprietary software]] (in alphabetical order) that allow the creation of concept maps.
 +* [http://​www.topicscape.com/​ 3D Topicscape] takes mind mapping and concept mapping into 3D with flying and zooming.
 +* [http://​www.aibase-cs.com Aibase] maps combine colorful trees, concept maps, tables and more.
 +* [http://​web.singnet.com.sg/​~axon2000 Axon Idea Processor] is a Windows program developed in Prolog.
 +* [http://​www.conceptdraw.com/​en/​products/​cd5/​main.php ConceptDraw] is cross-platform software
 +* [http://​www.ConceptSystems.com Concept Systems Global] Sophisticated online group concept mapping, collaboration,​ and consensus development.
 +* [http://​www.lets-focus.com/​index.php?​action=show&​language=en&​page=1 let's focus] Concept mapping and general diagramming,​ as well as visual metaphors and knowledge maps 
 +* [http://​www.matterandmotion.com First Diagramming] Concept mapping (and general diagramming) for Windows Mobile and SmartPhone devices
 +* [[Inspiration Software]] develops and publishes visual learning tools used for concept mapping, diagramming and webbing. [http://​www.inspiration.com].
 +* [http://​www.moresophy.com/​networker/​homepage/​TopicPage.jsp?​id=02t4o34l5106&​language=en L4 Modeller] is a graphical modeling environment as a modular component within the [[Knowledge management|KM]] platform L4 Semantic NetWorking of moresophy.
 +* [http://​www.sebastian-krauss.de/​software/​ MyMind] is another Mac-OS-X-based concept/​mind mapping tool.
 +* [http://​nelements.org Nelements KOS] 3d concept mapping tool.
 +* [http://​www.omnigroup.com/​applications/​omnigraffle/​ OmniGraffle] is a Mac-OS-X-based concept mapper.
 +* [[PAUX]] PAUX is software to develop, manage and publicize dynamic [[Mass customization|individualized]] content by linking [[Learning object metadata|reusable]] [[semantic]] content objects [[semantic]]ally. These objects are to make knowledge available as [[wiktionary:​filter|filter]]able [[content]] for [[website]]s,​ [[Semantic Wiki]], detailed-[[Evaluation|evaluated]] eLearning and individualized [[print media]]. The [[data model]] is a multi[[dimension]]al concept map.
 +* [http://​www.semanticresearch.com/​ Semantica] is a Java-based concept mapping tool.
 +* [http://​www.smartideas.com SMART Ideas Software] adds depth to visual learning with multilevel concept maps.
 +* [http://​www.strategictransitions.com/​aboutsupport.htm Strategic Transitions:​] ''​(Higher education '''​[[Tactical Operations Center|TOC]]'''​ templates)''​
 +* [http://​www.logo.com/​cat/​view/​thinking-pictures.html Thinking with Pictures] is commercial highly visual model mapping software for children running on MS Windows.
 +