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actor_network_theory [2016/10/23 04:11] (current)
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 +==Actor-Network Theory(ANT) [行動者網絡理論]==
 +或譯: 行動者網路理論
 +* **People:** [[:​people:​Michel Callon]], [[:​people:​Bruno Latour]], [[:​people:​John Law]]  ​
 +* **Related research topic:** [[:​science_technology_and_sociology|STS]],​ [[:Social informatics]]
 +=== Define ​
 +行動者網路理論是一種社會學理論,關注於**社會**與**科技(technoscience)**交織的**異質性網絡**(heterogeneous networks)。此理論認為,科技是由**行動者/​被行動者(Actors/​Acant,可以是人或非人)**所連結構成的網絡所創造與維護。科技之所為,是為了其動機與自身的**旨趣**(interests),採取行動與構成網絡中的元件與連結關係。何者建立的行動者網絡越成功,能創造更大更強的網絡,則越有可能在社會中存在與維持。
 +* **<​is>​**:研究在整合旨趣的異質網路中建立元件、連結關係的行動者,其行動與動機。
 +* 其主要**特色**,是其「行動者/​作用者(actor,​ actant)」可以是人,也可以是非人,如技術性人造物。 ​
 +* 其主要**應用於**,解釋 [結合旨趣的相對穩定網路]建立與維護 的 過程,或研究此網路無法建立的原因。 ​
 +* 其主要**論點(argument)**:成功的結合旨趣網路,是透過於特定聚合體上的結盟,以及對各自利益的轉換;因此他們願意 以特定的思考與活動方式 參與網路的維護。
 +* <fs 50%>"​Actor-network theory examines the motivations and actions of actors who form elements, linked by associations,​ of heterogeneous networks of aligned interests. A key feature of the theory is that actors (or actants as they are sometimes labeled) are taken to include both human beings and nonhuman actors such as technological artifacts. A major focus of the theory when applied in particular contexts is to try to trace and explain the processes whereby relatively stable networks of aligned interests are created and maintained, or alternatively to examine why such networks fail to establish themselves. Successful networks of aligned interests are created through the enrollment of a sufficient body of allies and the translation of their interests so that they are willing to participate in particular ways of thinking and acting that maintain the network."​ ([[:​study:​Walsham,​ G., & Sahay, S. (1999). GIS for District-Level Administration in India|Walsham & Sahay, 1999]])</​fs>​
 +就資訊技術方面而言,此一網路包含了人、機構與組織、軟體、計算機與通訊硬體、與網路架構標準。([[:​study:​Walsham,​ G. (1997). Actor-network theory and IS research|Walsham,​ 1997]]) ​
 +===Key concepts of ANT===
 +^Concept ^ Description ^
 +|Actor (or actant) \\ 行動者/​被行動者 |<fs 50%>Both human beings and nonhuman actors such as technological artifacts</​fs>​ \\ 人與非人的行動者(actor)都是一種技術性的人造物 |
 +|Actor-network \\ 行動者-網路 | <fs 50%>​Heterogeneous network of aligned interests, including people, organizations and standards.</​fs>​ \\ 旨趣結合的異質網路,包含眾人、組織與標準 |
 +|Enrollment and translation \\ 結盟與轉換 | <fs 50%>​Creating a body of allies, human and non-human, through a process of translating their interests to be aligned with the actor-network</​fs>​ \\ 建立結盟的主體。人與非人經由轉換其旨趣(利益)而在行動者網路中結合的過程 |
 +|Delegates and inscription \\ 代言與銘印 |<fs 50%>​Delegates are actors who "stand in and speak for" particular viewpoints which have been inscribed in them, e.g., software as frozen organizational discourse</​fs>​ \\ 行動者挺身為銘印在自身內的特定觀點說話,稱為代言 |
 +|Irreversibility \\ 不可逆性 |<fs 50%>The degree to which it is subsequently impossible to go back to a point where alternative possibilities exist</​fs>​ |
 +|Black box \\ 黑盒子 |<fs 50%>A frozen network element, often with properties of irreversibility</​fs>​ \\ 已凍結的網路元件。通常有不可逆性 |
 +|Immutable mobile \\ 不變元件 |<fs 50%>​Network element with strong properties of irreversibility,​ and effects which transcend time and place, e.g., software standards</​fs>​ \\ 具有強不可逆性的網路元件,其效應能超越時間空間。如,軟體標準 | 
 +(by [[:​study:​Walsham,​ G. (1997). Actor-network theory and IS research|Walsham,​ 1997]])
 +===轉化 Translation 4階段===
 +* Problematation 提出問題
 +* Interessement 利益與共
 +* Enrollement 結盟
 +* Mobilisation 動員
 +* Actor-network theory | 行動者網絡理論
 +* action(s) | 行動
 +* actor(s) | 行動者
 +* aligned interest(s) | 結合的旨趣/​利益 ​
 +* artifact(s) | 人造物
 +* context(s) | 脈絡 ​
 +* delegates | 代言
 +* element(s) | 元件
 +* enrollment | 結盟
 +* human and nonhuman | 人與非人
 +* inscription | 銘印
 +* interest(s) | 旨趣/​利益
 +* irreversibility | 不可逆性
 +* network(s) | 網絡
 +* translation | 轉化
 +* Original
 +** Callon 1986, Latour 1987, Latour 1996, Law 1992
 +** Callon, M. (1986). The sociology of an actor-network:​ The case of the electric vehicle. In M. Callon, J. Law & A. Rip (Eds.), Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology (pp. 19-34). London: Macmillan Press.
 +** [[:​study:​Latour,​ B. (1987). Science in Action]]: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Cambridge, MA: Howard University Press.
 +** [[:​study:​Callon,​ M., & Law, J. (1989). On the construction of sociotechnical networks]]: content and context revisited.” Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Science Past and Present, 8, p.57-83.
 +** [[:​study:​Latour,​ B. (1991). Technology is society made durable]]. In J. Law (Ed.). A Sociology of Monsters. Essays on Power, Technology and Domination, London: Routledge, p.103-131.
 +* Introduction
 +** [[:​study:​Walsham,​ G. (1997). Actor-Network Theory and IS research]]: current status and future prospects. In A. S. Lee, J. Liebenau, and J. I. DeGross (Eds.), Information Systems and Qualitative Research, London: Chapman and Hall, p.466-480.
 +* in IS
 +** [[:​study:​Walsham,​ G., & Sahay, S. (1999). GIS for district-level administration in India]]: problems and opportunities. MIS Quarterly, 23:1, p.39-65.
 +** [[:​study:​Doolin,​ B. (1999). Sociotechnical networks and information management in health care]]. Accounting, Management and Information Technology, 9:2, p.95-114.
 +** Tuomi, I. (2001). “Internet,​ innovation and open source: actors in the network.” First Monday: Peer Reviewed Journal on the Internet, 6:1. (Available at: http://​www.firstmonday.org/​issues/​issue6_1/​tuomi/​)
 +** Westup, C. (1999). “Knowledge,​ legitimacy and progress? Requirements as inscriptions in information systems development.” Information Systems Journal, 9:1, p.35-54.
 +** [[:​study:​Doolin,​ B., & Lowe, A. (2002). To reveal is to critique]]: Actor-Network Theory and critical information systems research.” Journal of Information Technology, 17:2, p.69-78.
 +{{tag>​social_informatics sts}}